Coverage Report - org.apache.commons.io.FileSystemUtils
 
Classes in this File Line Coverage Branch Coverage Complexity
FileSystemUtils
87%
118/135
90%
59/65
5.231
 
 1  
 /*
 2  
  * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 3  
  * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 4  
  * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 5  
  * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 6  
  * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 7  
  * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 8  
  *
 9  
  *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 10  
  *
 11  
  * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 12  
  * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 13  
  * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 14  
  * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 15  
  * limitations under the License.
 16  
  */
 17  
 package org.apache.commons.io;
 18  
 
 19  
 import java.io.BufferedReader;
 20  
 import java.io.File;
 21  
 import java.io.IOException;
 22  
 import java.io.InputStream;
 23  
 import java.io.InputStreamReader;
 24  
 import java.io.OutputStream;
 25  
 import java.nio.charset.Charset;
 26  
 import java.util.ArrayList;
 27  
 import java.util.Arrays;
 28  
 import java.util.List;
 29  
 import java.util.Locale;
 30  
 import java.util.StringTokenizer;
 31  
 
 32  
 /**
 33  
  * General File System utilities.
 34  
  * <p>
 35  
  * This class provides static utility methods for general file system
 36  
  * functions not provided via the JDK {@link java.io.File File} class.
 37  
  * <p>
 38  
  * The current functions provided are:
 39  
  * <ul>
 40  
  * <li>Get the free space on a drive
 41  
  * </ul>
 42  
  *
 43  
  * @version $Id: FileSystemUtils.java 1471767 2013-04-24 23:24:19Z sebb $
 44  
  * @since 1.1
 45  
  */
 46  
 public class FileSystemUtils {
 47  
 
 48  
     /** Singleton instance, used mainly for testing. */
 49  2
     private static final FileSystemUtils INSTANCE = new FileSystemUtils();
 50  
 
 51  
     /** Operating system state flag for error. */
 52  
     private static final int INIT_PROBLEM = -1;
 53  
     /** Operating system state flag for neither Unix nor Windows. */
 54  
     private static final int OTHER = 0;
 55  
     /** Operating system state flag for Windows. */
 56  
     private static final int WINDOWS = 1;
 57  
     /** Operating system state flag for Unix. */
 58  
     private static final int UNIX = 2;
 59  
     /** Operating system state flag for Posix flavour Unix. */
 60  
     private static final int POSIX_UNIX = 3;
 61  
 
 62  
     /** The operating system flag. */
 63  
     private static final int OS;
 64  
 
 65  
     /** The path to df */
 66  
     private static final String DF;
 67  
 
 68  
     static {
 69  2
         int os = OTHER;
 70  2
         String dfPath = "df";
 71  
         try {
 72  2
             String osName = System.getProperty("os.name");
 73  2
             if (osName == null) {
 74  0
                 throw new IOException("os.name not found");
 75  
             }
 76  2
             osName = osName.toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
 77  
             // match
 78  2
             if (osName.indexOf("windows") != -1) {
 79  2
                 os = WINDOWS;
 80  0
             } else if (osName.indexOf("linux") != -1 ||
 81  
                 osName.indexOf("mpe/ix") != -1 ||
 82  
                 osName.indexOf("freebsd") != -1 ||
 83  
                 osName.indexOf("irix") != -1 ||
 84  
                 osName.indexOf("digital unix") != -1 ||
 85  
                 osName.indexOf("unix") != -1 ||
 86  
                 osName.indexOf("mac os x") != -1) {
 87  0
                 os = UNIX;
 88  0
             } else if (osName.indexOf("sun os") != -1 ||
 89  
                 osName.indexOf("sunos") != -1 ||
 90  
                 osName.indexOf("solaris") != -1) {
 91  0
                 os = POSIX_UNIX;
 92  0
                 dfPath = "/usr/xpg4/bin/df";
 93  0
             } else if (osName.indexOf("hp-ux") != -1 ||
 94  
                 osName.indexOf("aix") != -1) {
 95  0
                 os = POSIX_UNIX;
 96  
             } else {
 97  0
                 os = OTHER;
 98  
             }
 99  
 
 100  0
         } catch (final Exception ex) {
 101  0
             os = INIT_PROBLEM;
 102  2
         }
 103  2
         OS = os;
 104  2
         DF = dfPath;
 105  2
     }
 106  
 
 107  
     /**
 108  
      * Instances should NOT be constructed in standard programming.
 109  
      */
 110  
     public FileSystemUtils() {
 111  56
         super();
 112  56
     }
 113  
 
 114  
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 115  
     /**
 116  
      * Returns the free space on a drive or volume by invoking
 117  
      * the command line.
 118  
      * This method does not normalize the result, and typically returns
 119  
      * bytes on Windows, 512 byte units on OS X and kilobytes on Unix.
 120  
      * As this is not very useful, this method is deprecated in favour
 121  
      * of {@link #freeSpaceKb(String)} which returns a result in kilobytes.
 122  
      * <p>
 123  
      * Note that some OS's are NOT currently supported, including OS/390,
 124  
      * OpenVMS.
 125  
      * <pre>
 126  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpace("C:");       // Windows
 127  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpace("/volume");  // *nix
 128  
      * </pre>
 129  
      * The free space is calculated via the command line.
 130  
      * It uses 'dir /-c' on Windows and 'df' on *nix.
 131  
      *
 132  
      * @param path  the path to get free space for, not null, not empty on Unix
 133  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the drive or volume
 134  
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the path is invalid
 135  
      * @throws IllegalStateException if an error occurred in initialisation
 136  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs when finding the free space
 137  
      * @since 1.1, enhanced OS support in 1.2 and 1.3
 138  
      * @deprecated Use freeSpaceKb(String)
 139  
      *  Deprecated from 1.3, may be removed in 2.0
 140  
      */
 141  
     @Deprecated
 142  
     public static long freeSpace(final String path) throws IOException {
 143  2
         return INSTANCE.freeSpaceOS(path, OS, false, -1);
 144  
     }
 145  
 
 146  
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 147  
     /**
 148  
      * Returns the free space on a drive or volume in kilobytes by invoking
 149  
      * the command line.
 150  
      * <pre>
 151  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpaceKb("C:");       // Windows
 152  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpaceKb("/volume");  // *nix
 153  
      * </pre>
 154  
      * The free space is calculated via the command line.
 155  
      * It uses 'dir /-c' on Windows, 'df -kP' on AIX/HP-UX and 'df -k' on other Unix.
 156  
      * <p>
 157  
      * In order to work, you must be running Windows, or have a implementation of
 158  
      * Unix df that supports GNU format when passed -k (or -kP). If you are going
 159  
      * to rely on this code, please check that it works on your OS by running
 160  
      * some simple tests to compare the command line with the output from this class.
 161  
      * If your operating system isn't supported, please raise a JIRA call detailing
 162  
      * the exact result from df -k and as much other detail as possible, thanks.
 163  
      *
 164  
      * @param path  the path to get free space for, not null, not empty on Unix
 165  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the drive or volume in kilobytes
 166  
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the path is invalid
 167  
      * @throws IllegalStateException if an error occurred in initialisation
 168  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs when finding the free space
 169  
      * @since 1.2, enhanced OS support in 1.3
 170  
      */
 171  
     public static long freeSpaceKb(final String path) throws IOException {
 172  2
         return freeSpaceKb(path, -1);
 173  
     }
 174  
     /**
 175  
      * Returns the free space on a drive or volume in kilobytes by invoking
 176  
      * the command line.
 177  
      * <pre>
 178  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpaceKb("C:");       // Windows
 179  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpaceKb("/volume");  // *nix
 180  
      * </pre>
 181  
      * The free space is calculated via the command line.
 182  
      * It uses 'dir /-c' on Windows, 'df -kP' on AIX/HP-UX and 'df -k' on other Unix.
 183  
      * <p>
 184  
      * In order to work, you must be running Windows, or have a implementation of
 185  
      * Unix df that supports GNU format when passed -k (or -kP). If you are going
 186  
      * to rely on this code, please check that it works on your OS by running
 187  
      * some simple tests to compare the command line with the output from this class.
 188  
      * If your operating system isn't supported, please raise a JIRA call detailing
 189  
      * the exact result from df -k and as much other detail as possible, thanks.
 190  
      *
 191  
      * @param path  the path to get free space for, not null, not empty on Unix
 192  
      * @param timeout The timout amount in milliseconds or no timeout if the value
 193  
      *  is zero or less
 194  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the drive or volume in kilobytes
 195  
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the path is invalid
 196  
      * @throws IllegalStateException if an error occurred in initialisation
 197  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs when finding the free space
 198  
      * @since 2.0
 199  
      */
 200  
     public static long freeSpaceKb(final String path, final long timeout) throws IOException {
 201  2
         return INSTANCE.freeSpaceOS(path, OS, true, timeout);
 202  
     }
 203  
 
 204  
     /**
 205  
      * Returns the disk size of the volume which holds the working directory.
 206  
      * <p>
 207  
      * Identical to:
 208  
      * <pre>
 209  
      * freeSpaceKb(new File(".").getAbsolutePath())
 210  
      * </pre>
 211  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the drive or volume in kilobytes
 212  
      * @throws IllegalStateException if an error occurred in initialisation
 213  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs when finding the free space
 214  
      * @since 2.0
 215  
      */
 216  
     public static long freeSpaceKb() throws IOException {
 217  0
         return freeSpaceKb(-1);
 218  
     }
 219  
 
 220  
     /**
 221  
      * Returns the disk size of the volume which holds the working directory.
 222  
      * <p>
 223  
      * Identical to:
 224  
      * <pre>
 225  
      * freeSpaceKb(new File(".").getAbsolutePath())
 226  
      * </pre>
 227  
      * @param timeout The timout amount in milliseconds or no timeout if the value
 228  
      *  is zero or less
 229  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the drive or volume in kilobytes
 230  
      * @throws IllegalStateException if an error occurred in initialisation
 231  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs when finding the free space
 232  
      * @since 2.0
 233  
      */
 234  
     public static long freeSpaceKb(final long timeout) throws IOException {
 235  0
         return freeSpaceKb(new File(".").getAbsolutePath(), timeout);
 236  
     }
 237  
 
 238  
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 239  
     /**
 240  
      * Returns the free space on a drive or volume in a cross-platform manner.
 241  
      * Note that some OS's are NOT currently supported, including OS/390.
 242  
      * <pre>
 243  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpace("C:");  // Windows
 244  
      * FileSystemUtils.freeSpace("/volume");  // *nix
 245  
      * </pre>
 246  
      * The free space is calculated via the command line.
 247  
      * It uses 'dir /-c' on Windows and 'df' on *nix.
 248  
      *
 249  
      * @param path  the path to get free space for, not null, not empty on Unix
 250  
      * @param os  the operating system code
 251  
      * @param kb  whether to normalize to kilobytes
 252  
      * @param timeout The timout amount in milliseconds or no timeout if the value
 253  
      *  is zero or less
 254  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the drive or volume
 255  
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the path is invalid
 256  
      * @throws IllegalStateException if an error occurred in initialisation
 257  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs when finding the free space
 258  
      */
 259  
     long freeSpaceOS(final String path, final int os, final boolean kb, final long timeout) throws IOException {
 260  24
         if (path == null) {
 261  4
             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Path must not be empty");
 262  
         }
 263  20
         switch (os) {
 264  
             case WINDOWS:
 265  8
                 return kb ? freeSpaceWindows(path, timeout) / FileUtils.ONE_KB : freeSpaceWindows(path, timeout);
 266  
             case UNIX:
 267  4
                 return freeSpaceUnix(path, kb, false, timeout);
 268  
             case POSIX_UNIX:
 269  0
                 return freeSpaceUnix(path, kb, true, timeout);
 270  
             case OTHER:
 271  4
                 throw new IllegalStateException("Unsupported operating system");
 272  
             default:
 273  4
                 throw new IllegalStateException(
 274  
                   "Exception caught when determining operating system");
 275  
         }
 276  
     }
 277  
 
 278  
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 279  
     /**
 280  
      * Find free space on the Windows platform using the 'dir' command.
 281  
      *
 282  
      * @param path  the path to get free space for, including the colon
 283  
      * @param timeout The timout amount in milliseconds or no timeout if the value
 284  
      *  is zero or less
 285  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the drive
 286  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs
 287  
      */
 288  
     long freeSpaceWindows(String path, final long timeout) throws IOException {
 289  22
         path = FilenameUtils.normalize(path, false);
 290  22
         if (path.length() > 0 && path.charAt(0) != '"') {
 291  12
             path = "\"" + path + "\"";
 292  
         }
 293  
 
 294  
         // build and run the 'dir' command
 295  22
         final String[] cmdAttribs = new String[] {"cmd.exe", "/C", "dir /a /-c " + path};
 296  
 
 297  
         // read in the output of the command to an ArrayList
 298  22
         final List<String> lines = performCommand(cmdAttribs, Integer.MAX_VALUE, timeout);
 299  
 
 300  
         // now iterate over the lines we just read and find the LAST
 301  
         // non-empty line (the free space bytes should be in the last element
 302  
         // of the ArrayList anyway, but this will ensure it works even if it's
 303  
         // not, still assuming it is on the last non-blank line)
 304  22
         for (int i = lines.size() - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
 305  20
             final String line = lines.get(i);
 306  20
             if (line.length() > 0) {
 307  16
                 return parseDir(line, path);
 308  
             }
 309  
         }
 310  
         // all lines are blank
 311  2
         throw new IOException(
 312  
                 "Command line 'dir /-c' did not return any info " +
 313  
                 "for path '" + path + "'");
 314  
     }
 315  
 
 316  
     /**
 317  
      * Parses the Windows dir response last line
 318  
      *
 319  
      * @param line  the line to parse
 320  
      * @param path  the path that was sent
 321  
      * @return the number of bytes
 322  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs
 323  
      */
 324  
     long parseDir(final String line, final String path) throws IOException {
 325  
         // read from the end of the line to find the last numeric
 326  
         // character on the line, then continue until we find the first
 327  
         // non-numeric character, and everything between that and the last
 328  
         // numeric character inclusive is our free space bytes count
 329  16
         int bytesStart = 0;
 330  16
         int bytesEnd = 0;
 331  16
         int j = line.length() - 1;
 332  204
         innerLoop1: while (j >= 0) {
 333  202
             final char c = line.charAt(j);
 334  202
             if (Character.isDigit(c)) {
 335  
               // found the last numeric character, this is the end of
 336  
               // the free space bytes count
 337  14
               bytesEnd = j + 1;
 338  14
               break innerLoop1;
 339  
             }
 340  188
             j--;
 341  188
         }
 342  176
         innerLoop2: while (j >= 0) {
 343  174
             final char c = line.charAt(j);
 344  174
             if (!Character.isDigit(c) && c != ',' && c != '.') {
 345  
               // found the next non-numeric character, this is the
 346  
               // beginning of the free space bytes count
 347  14
               bytesStart = j + 1;
 348  14
               break innerLoop2;
 349  
             }
 350  160
             j--;
 351  160
         }
 352  16
         if (j < 0) {
 353  2
             throw new IOException(
 354  
                     "Command line 'dir /-c' did not return valid info " +
 355  
                     "for path '" + path + "'");
 356  
         }
 357  
 
 358  
         // remove commas and dots in the bytes count
 359  14
         final StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder(line.substring(bytesStart, bytesEnd));
 360  174
         for (int k = 0; k < buf.length(); k++) {
 361  160
             if (buf.charAt(k) == ',' || buf.charAt(k) == '.') {
 362  6
                 buf.deleteCharAt(k--);
 363  
             }
 364  
         }
 365  14
         return parseBytes(buf.toString(), path);
 366  
     }
 367  
 
 368  
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 369  
     /**
 370  
      * Find free space on the *nix platform using the 'df' command.
 371  
      *
 372  
      * @param path  the path to get free space for
 373  
      * @param kb  whether to normalize to kilobytes
 374  
      * @param posix  whether to use the posix standard format flag
 375  
      * @param timeout The timout amount in milliseconds or no timeout if the value
 376  
      *  is zero or less
 377  
      * @return the amount of free drive space on the volume
 378  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs
 379  
      */
 380  
     long freeSpaceUnix(final String path, final boolean kb, final boolean posix, final long timeout) throws IOException {
 381  62
         if (path.length() == 0) {
 382  8
             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Path must not be empty");
 383  
         }
 384  
 
 385  
         // build and run the 'dir' command
 386  54
         String flags = "-";
 387  54
         if (kb) {
 388  28
             flags += "k";
 389  
         }
 390  54
         if (posix) {
 391  20
             flags += "P";
 392  
         }
 393  54
         final String[] cmdAttribs =
 394  
             flags.length() > 1 ? new String[] {DF, flags, path} : new String[] {DF, path};
 395  
 
 396  
         // perform the command, asking for up to 3 lines (header, interesting, overflow)
 397  54
         final List<String> lines = performCommand(cmdAttribs, 3, timeout);
 398  46
         if (lines.size() < 2) {
 399  
             // unknown problem, throw exception
 400  0
             throw new IOException(
 401  
                     "Command line '" + DF + "' did not return info as expected " +
 402  
                     "for path '" + path + "'- response was " + lines);
 403  
         }
 404  46
         final String line2 = lines.get(1); // the line we're interested in
 405  
 
 406  
         // Now, we tokenize the string. The fourth element is what we want.
 407  46
         StringTokenizer tok = new StringTokenizer(line2, " ");
 408  46
         if (tok.countTokens() < 4) {
 409  
             // could be long Filesystem, thus data on third line
 410  20
             if (tok.countTokens() == 1 && lines.size() >= 3) {
 411  4
                 final String line3 = lines.get(2); // the line may be interested in
 412  4
                 tok = new StringTokenizer(line3, " ");
 413  4
             } else {
 414  16
                 throw new IOException(
 415  
                         "Command line '" + DF + "' did not return data as expected " +
 416  
                         "for path '" + path + "'- check path is valid");
 417  
             }
 418  
         } else {
 419  26
             tok.nextToken(); // Ignore Filesystem
 420  
         }
 421  30
         tok.nextToken(); // Ignore 1K-blocks
 422  30
         tok.nextToken(); // Ignore Used
 423  30
         final String freeSpace = tok.nextToken();
 424  30
         return parseBytes(freeSpace, path);
 425  
     }
 426  
 
 427  
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 428  
     /**
 429  
      * Parses the bytes from a string.
 430  
      *
 431  
      * @param freeSpace  the free space string
 432  
      * @param path  the path
 433  
      * @return the number of bytes
 434  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs
 435  
      */
 436  
     long parseBytes(final String freeSpace, final String path) throws IOException {
 437  
         try {
 438  44
             final long bytes = Long.parseLong(freeSpace);
 439  36
             if (bytes < 0) {
 440  8
                 throw new IOException(
 441  
                         "Command line '" + DF + "' did not find free space in response " +
 442  
                         "for path '" + path + "'- check path is valid");
 443  
             }
 444  28
             return bytes;
 445  
 
 446  8
         } catch (final NumberFormatException ex) {
 447  8
             throw new IOExceptionWithCause(
 448  
                     "Command line '" + DF + "' did not return numeric data as expected " +
 449  
                     "for path '" + path + "'- check path is valid", ex);
 450  
         }
 451  
     }
 452  
 
 453  
     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 454  
     /**
 455  
      * Performs the os command.
 456  
      *
 457  
      * @param cmdAttribs  the command line parameters
 458  
      * @param max The maximum limit for the lines returned
 459  
      * @param timeout The timout amount in milliseconds or no timeout if the value
 460  
      *  is zero or less
 461  
      * @return the lines returned by the command, converted to lower-case
 462  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs
 463  
      */
 464  
     List<String> performCommand(final String[] cmdAttribs, final int max, final long timeout) throws IOException {
 465  
         // this method does what it can to avoid the 'Too many open files' error
 466  
         // based on trial and error and these links:
 467  
         // http://bugs.sun.com/bugdatabase/view_bug.do?bug_id=4784692
 468  
         // http://bugs.sun.com/bugdatabase/view_bug.do?bug_id=4801027
 469  
         // http://forum.java.sun.com/thread.jspa?threadID=533029&messageID=2572018
 470  
         // however, its still not perfect as the JDK support is so poor
 471  
         // (see commons-exec or Ant for a better multi-threaded multi-os solution)
 472  
 
 473  76
         final List<String> lines = new ArrayList<String>(20);
 474  76
         Process proc = null;
 475  76
         InputStream in = null;
 476  76
         OutputStream out = null;
 477  76
         InputStream err = null;
 478  76
         BufferedReader inr = null;
 479  
         try {
 480  
 
 481  76
             final Thread monitor = ThreadMonitor.start(timeout);
 482  
 
 483  76
             proc = openProcess(cmdAttribs);
 484  76
             in = proc.getInputStream();
 485  76
             out = proc.getOutputStream();
 486  76
             err = proc.getErrorStream();
 487  
             // default charset is most likely appropriate here
 488  76
             inr = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in, Charset.defaultCharset()));
 489  76
             String line = inr.readLine();
 490  412
             while (line != null && lines.size() < max) {
 491  336
                 line = line.toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH).trim();
 492  336
                 lines.add(line);
 493  336
                 line = inr.readLine();
 494  
             }
 495  
 
 496  76
             proc.waitFor();
 497  
 
 498  76
             ThreadMonitor.stop(monitor);
 499  
 
 500  76
             if (proc.exitValue() != 0) {
 501  
                 // os command problem, throw exception
 502  2
                 throw new IOException(
 503  
                         "Command line returned OS error code '" + proc.exitValue() +
 504  
                         "' for command " + Arrays.asList(cmdAttribs));
 505  
             }
 506  74
             if (lines.isEmpty()) {
 507  
                 // unknown problem, throw exception
 508  10
                 throw new IOException(
 509  
                         "Command line did not return any info " +
 510  
                         "for command " + Arrays.asList(cmdAttribs));
 511  
             }
 512  64
             return lines;
 513  
 
 514  0
         } catch (final InterruptedException ex) {
 515  0
             throw new IOExceptionWithCause(
 516  
                     "Command line threw an InterruptedException " +
 517  
                     "for command " + Arrays.asList(cmdAttribs) + " timeout=" + timeout, ex);
 518  
         } finally {
 519  76
             IOUtils.closeQuietly(in);
 520  76
             IOUtils.closeQuietly(out);
 521  76
             IOUtils.closeQuietly(err);
 522  76
             IOUtils.closeQuietly(inr);
 523  76
             if (proc != null) {
 524  76
                 proc.destroy();
 525  
             }
 526  
         }
 527  
     }
 528  
 
 529  
     /**
 530  
      * Opens the process to the operating system.
 531  
      *
 532  
      * @param cmdAttribs  the command line parameters
 533  
      * @return the process
 534  
      * @throws IOException if an error occurs
 535  
      */
 536  
     Process openProcess(final String[] cmdAttribs) throws IOException {
 537  4
         return Runtime.getRuntime().exec(cmdAttribs);
 538  
     }
 539  
 
 540  
 }