001/*
002 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
003 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
004 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
005 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
006 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
007 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
008 *
009 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
010 *
011 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
012 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
013 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
014 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
015 * limitations under the License.
016 */
017package org.apache.commons.math3;
018
019import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.MathArithmeticException;
020import org.apache.commons.math3.exception.NullArgumentException;
021
022
023/**
024 * Interface representing <a href="http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Field.html">field</a> elements.
025 * @param <T> the type of the field elements
026 * @see Field
027 * @version $Id: FieldElement.java 1416643 2012-12-03 19:37:14Z tn $
028 * @since 2.0
029 */
030public interface FieldElement<T> {
031
032    /** Compute this + a.
033     * @param a element to add
034     * @return a new element representing this + a
035     * @throws NullArgumentException if {@code addend} is {@code null}.
036     */
037    T add(T a) throws NullArgumentException;
038
039    /** Compute this - a.
040     * @param a element to subtract
041     * @return a new element representing this - a
042     * @throws NullArgumentException if {@code a} is {@code null}.
043     */
044    T subtract(T a) throws NullArgumentException;
045
046    /**
047     * Returns the additive inverse of {@code this} element.
048     * @return the opposite of {@code this}.
049     */
050    T negate();
051
052    /** Compute n &times; this. Multiplication by an integer number is defined
053     * as the following sum
054     * <center>
055     * n &times; this = &sum;<sub>i=1</sub><sup>n</sup> this.
056     * </center>
057     * @param n Number of times {@code this} must be added to itself.
058     * @return A new element representing n &times; this.
059     */
060    T multiply(int n);
061
062    /** Compute this &times; a.
063     * @param a element to multiply
064     * @return a new element representing this &times; a
065     * @throws NullArgumentException if {@code a} is {@code null}.
066     */
067    T multiply(T a) throws NullArgumentException;
068
069    /** Compute this &divide; a.
070     * @param a element to add
071     * @return a new element representing this &divide; a
072     * @throws NullArgumentException if {@code a} is {@code null}.
073     * @throws MathArithmeticException if {@code a} is zero
074     */
075    T divide(T a) throws NullArgumentException, MathArithmeticException;
076
077    /**
078     * Returns the multiplicative inverse of {@code this} element.
079     * @return the inverse of {@code this}.
080     * @throws MathArithmeticException if {@code this} is zero
081     */
082    T reciprocal() throws MathArithmeticException;
083
084    /** Get the {@link Field} to which the instance belongs.
085     * @return {@link Field} to which the instance belongs
086     */
087    Field<T> getField();
088}