## org.apache.commons.math3.linear Class EigenDecomposition

```java.lang.Object
org.apache.commons.math3.linear.EigenDecomposition
```

`public class EigenDecompositionextends Object`

Calculates the eigen decomposition of a real matrix.

The eigen decomposition of matrix A is a set of two matrices: V and D such that A = V × D × VT. A, V and D are all m × m matrices.

This class is similar in spirit to the `EigenvalueDecomposition` class from the JAMA library, with the following changes:

As of 3.1, this class supports general real matrices (both symmetric and non-symmetric):

If A is symmetric, then A = V*D*V' where the eigenvalue matrix D is diagonal and the eigenvector matrix V is orthogonal, i.e. A = V.multiply(D.multiply(V.transpose())) and V.multiply(V.transpose()) equals the identity matrix.

If A is not symmetric, then the eigenvalue matrix D is block diagonal with the real eigenvalues in 1-by-1 blocks and any complex eigenvalues, lambda + i*mu, in 2-by-2 blocks:

```    [lambda, mu    ]
[   -mu, lambda]
```
The columns of V represent the eigenvectors in the sense that A*V = V*D, i.e. A.multiply(V) equals V.multiply(D). The matrix V may be badly conditioned, or even singular, so the validity of the equation A = V*D*inverse(V) depends upon the condition of V.

This implementation is based on the paper by A. Drubrulle, R.S. Martin and J.H. Wilkinson "The Implicit QL Algorithm" in Wilksinson and Reinsch (1971) Handbook for automatic computation, vol. 2, Linear algebra, Springer-Verlag, New-York

Since:
2.0 (changed to concrete class in 3.0)
Version:
\$Id: EigenDecomposition.java 1422195 2012-12-15 06:45:18Z psteitz \$
MathWorld, Wikipedia

Constructor Summary
```EigenDecomposition(double[] main, double[] secondary)```
Calculates the eigen decomposition of the symmetric tridiagonal matrix.
```EigenDecomposition(double[] main, double[] secondary, double splitTolerance)```
Deprecated. in 3.1 (to be removed in 4.0) due to unused parameter
`EigenDecomposition(RealMatrix matrix)`
Calculates the eigen decomposition of the given real matrix.
```EigenDecomposition(RealMatrix matrix, double splitTolerance)```
Deprecated. in 3.1 (to be removed in 4.0) due to unused parameter

Method Summary
` RealMatrix` `getD()`
Gets the block diagonal matrix D of the decomposition.
` double` `getDeterminant()`
Computes the determinant of the matrix.
` RealVector` `getEigenvector(int i)`
Gets a copy of the ith eigenvector of the original matrix.
` double` `getImagEigenvalue(int i)`
Gets the imaginary part of the ith eigenvalue of the original matrix.
` double[]` `getImagEigenvalues()`
Gets a copy of the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues of the original matrix.
` double` `getRealEigenvalue(int i)`
Returns the real part of the ith eigenvalue of the original matrix.
` double[]` `getRealEigenvalues()`
Gets a copy of the real parts of the eigenvalues of the original matrix.
` DecompositionSolver` `getSolver()`
Gets a solver for finding the A × X = B solution in exact linear sense.
` RealMatrix` `getSquareRoot()`
Computes the square-root of the matrix.
` RealMatrix` `getV()`
Gets the matrix V of the decomposition.
` RealMatrix` `getVT()`
Gets the transpose of the matrix V of the decomposition.
` boolean` `hasComplexEigenvalues()`
Returns whether the calculated eigen values are complex or real.

Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
`clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait`

Constructor Detail

### EigenDecomposition

```public EigenDecomposition(RealMatrix matrix)
throws MathArithmeticException```
Calculates the eigen decomposition of the given real matrix.

Supports decomposition of a general matrix since 3.1.

Parameters:
`matrix` - Matrix to decompose.
Throws:
`MaxCountExceededException` - if the algorithm fails to converge.
`MathArithmeticException` - if the decomposition of a general matrix results in a matrix with zero norm
Since:
3.1

### EigenDecomposition

```@Deprecated
public EigenDecomposition(RealMatrix matrix,
double splitTolerance)
throws MathArithmeticException```
Deprecated. in 3.1 (to be removed in 4.0) due to unused parameter

Calculates the eigen decomposition of the given real matrix.

Parameters:
`matrix` - Matrix to decompose.
`splitTolerance` - Dummy parameter (present for backward compatibility only).
Throws:
`MathArithmeticException` - if the decomposition of a general matrix results in a matrix with zero norm
`MaxCountExceededException` - if the algorithm fails to converge.

### EigenDecomposition

```public EigenDecomposition(double[] main,
double[] secondary)```
Calculates the eigen decomposition of the symmetric tridiagonal matrix. The Householder matrix is assumed to be the identity matrix.

Parameters:
`main` - Main diagonal of the symmetric tridiagonal form.
`secondary` - Secondary of the tridiagonal form.
Throws:
`MaxCountExceededException` - if the algorithm fails to converge.
Since:
3.1

### EigenDecomposition

```@Deprecated
public EigenDecomposition(double[] main,
double[] secondary,
double splitTolerance)```
Deprecated. in 3.1 (to be removed in 4.0) due to unused parameter

Calculates the eigen decomposition of the symmetric tridiagonal matrix. The Householder matrix is assumed to be the identity matrix.

Parameters:
`main` - Main diagonal of the symmetric tridiagonal form.
`secondary` - Secondary of the tridiagonal form.
`splitTolerance` - Dummy parameter (present for backward compatibility only).
Throws:
`MaxCountExceededException` - if the algorithm fails to converge.
Method Detail

### getV

`public RealMatrix getV()`
Gets the matrix V of the decomposition. V is an orthogonal matrix, i.e. its transpose is also its inverse. The columns of V are the eigenvectors of the original matrix. No assumption is made about the orientation of the system axes formed by the columns of V (e.g. in a 3-dimension space, V can form a left- or right-handed system).

Returns:
the V matrix.

### getD

`public RealMatrix getD()`
Gets the block diagonal matrix D of the decomposition. D is a block diagonal matrix. Real eigenvalues are on the diagonal while complex values are on 2x2 blocks { {real +imaginary}, {-imaginary, real} }.

Returns:
the D matrix.
`getRealEigenvalues()`, `getImagEigenvalues()`

### getVT

`public RealMatrix getVT()`
Gets the transpose of the matrix V of the decomposition. V is an orthogonal matrix, i.e. its transpose is also its inverse. The columns of V are the eigenvectors of the original matrix. No assumption is made about the orientation of the system axes formed by the columns of V (e.g. in a 3-dimension space, V can form a left- or right-handed system).

Returns:
the transpose of the V matrix.

### hasComplexEigenvalues

`public boolean hasComplexEigenvalues()`
Returns whether the calculated eigen values are complex or real.

The method performs a zero check for each element of the `getImagEigenvalues()` array and returns `true` if any element is not equal to zero.

Returns:
`true` if the eigen values are complex, `false` otherwise
Since:
3.1

### getRealEigenvalues

`public double[] getRealEigenvalues()`
Gets a copy of the real parts of the eigenvalues of the original matrix.

Returns:
a copy of the real parts of the eigenvalues of the original matrix.
`getD()`, `getRealEigenvalue(int)`, `getImagEigenvalues()`

### getRealEigenvalue

`public double getRealEigenvalue(int i)`
Returns the real part of the ith eigenvalue of the original matrix.

Parameters:
`i` - index of the eigenvalue (counting from 0)
Returns:
real part of the ith eigenvalue of the original matrix.
`getD()`, `getRealEigenvalues()`, `getImagEigenvalue(int)`

### getImagEigenvalues

`public double[] getImagEigenvalues()`
Gets a copy of the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues of the original matrix.

Returns:
a copy of the imaginary parts of the eigenvalues of the original matrix.
`getD()`, `getImagEigenvalue(int)`, `getRealEigenvalues()`

### getImagEigenvalue

`public double getImagEigenvalue(int i)`
Gets the imaginary part of the ith eigenvalue of the original matrix.

Parameters:
`i` - Index of the eigenvalue (counting from 0).
Returns:
the imaginary part of the ith eigenvalue of the original matrix.
`getD()`, `getImagEigenvalues()`, `getRealEigenvalue(int)`

### getEigenvector

`public RealVector getEigenvector(int i)`
Gets a copy of the ith eigenvector of the original matrix.

Parameters:
`i` - Index of the eigenvector (counting from 0).
Returns:
a copy of the ith eigenvector of the original matrix.
`getD()`

### getDeterminant

`public double getDeterminant()`
Computes the determinant of the matrix.

Returns:
the determinant of the matrix.

### getSquareRoot

`public RealMatrix getSquareRoot()`
Computes the square-root of the matrix. This implementation assumes that the matrix is symmetric and postive definite.

Returns:
the square-root of the matrix.
Throws:
`MathUnsupportedOperationException` - if the matrix is not symmetric or not positive definite.
Since:
3.1

### getSolver

`public DecompositionSolver getSolver()`
Gets a solver for finding the A × X = B solution in exact linear sense.

Since 3.1, eigen decomposition of a general matrix is supported, but the `DecompositionSolver` only supports real eigenvalues.

Returns:
a solver
Throws:
`MathUnsupportedOperationException` - if the decomposition resulted in complex eigenvalues