org.apache.commons.math3.util
Class MathArrays

java.lang.Object
  extended by org.apache.commons.math3.util.MathArrays

public class MathArrays
extends Object

Arrays utilities.

Since:
3.0
Version:
$Id: MathArrays.java 1422313 2012-12-15 18:53:41Z psteitz $

Nested Class Summary
static interface MathArrays.Function
          Real-valued function that operate on an array or a part of it.
static class MathArrays.OrderDirection
          Specification of ordering direction.
 
Method Summary
static void checkNonNegative(long[] in)
          Check that all entries of the input array are >= 0.
static void checkNonNegative(long[][] in)
          Check all entries of the input array are >= 0.
static void checkOrder(double[] val)
          Check that the given array is sorted in strictly increasing order.
static void checkOrder(double[] val, MathArrays.OrderDirection dir, boolean strict)
          Check that the given array is sorted.
static boolean checkOrder(double[] val, MathArrays.OrderDirection dir, boolean strict, boolean abort)
          Check that the given array is sorted.
static void checkPositive(double[] in)
          Check that all entries of the input array are strictly positive.
static void checkRectangular(long[][] in)
          Throws DimensionMismatchException if the input array is not rectangular.
static double[] copyOf(double[] source)
          Creates a copy of the source array.
static double[] copyOf(double[] source, int len)
          Creates a copy of the source array.
static int[] copyOf(int[] source)
          Creates a copy of the source array.
static int[] copyOf(int[] source, int len)
          Creates a copy of the source array.
static double distance(double[] p1, double[] p2)
          Calculates the L2 (Euclidean) distance between two points.
static double distance(int[] p1, int[] p2)
          Calculates the L2 (Euclidean) distance between two points.
static double distance1(double[] p1, double[] p2)
          Calculates the L1 (sum of abs) distance between two points.
static int distance1(int[] p1, int[] p2)
          Calculates the L1 (sum of abs) distance between two points.
static double distanceInf(double[] p1, double[] p2)
          Calculates the L (max of abs) distance between two points.
static int distanceInf(int[] p1, int[] p2)
          Calculates the L (max of abs) distance between two points.
static double[] ebeAdd(double[] a, double[] b)
          Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element addition of the arguments.
static double[] ebeDivide(double[] a, double[] b)
          Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element division of the first argument by the second.
static double[] ebeMultiply(double[] a, double[] b)
          Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element multiplication of the arguments.
static double[] ebeSubtract(double[] a, double[] b)
          Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element subtraction of the second argument from the first.
static boolean equals(double[] x, double[] y)
          Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by Precision.equals(double,double).
static boolean equals(float[] x, float[] y)
          Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by Precision.equals(float,float).
static boolean equalsIncludingNaN(double[] x, double[] y)
          Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by this method.
static boolean equalsIncludingNaN(float[] x, float[] y)
          Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by this method.
static boolean isMonotonic(double[] val, MathArrays.OrderDirection dir, boolean strict)
          Check that an array is monotonically increasing or decreasing.
static
<T extends Comparable<? super T>>
boolean
isMonotonic(T[] val, MathArrays.OrderDirection dir, boolean strict)
          Check that an array is monotonically increasing or decreasing.
static double linearCombination(double[] a, double[] b)
          Compute a linear combination accurately.
static double linearCombination(double a1, double b1, double a2, double b2)
          Compute a linear combination accurately.
static double linearCombination(double a1, double b1, double a2, double b2, double a3, double b3)
          Compute a linear combination accurately.
static double linearCombination(double a1, double b1, double a2, double b2, double a3, double b3, double a4, double b4)
          Compute a linear combination accurately.
static double[] normalizeArray(double[] values, double normalizedSum)
          Normalizes an array to make it sum to a specified value.
static double safeNorm(double[] v)
          Returns the Cartesian norm (2-norm), handling both overflow and underflow.
static void sortInPlace(double[] x, double[]... yList)
          Sort an array in ascending order in place and perform the same reordering of entries on other arrays.
static void sortInPlace(double[] x, MathArrays.OrderDirection dir, double[]... yList)
          Sort an array in place and perform the same reordering of entries on other arrays.
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
 

Method Detail

ebeAdd

public static double[] ebeAdd(double[] a,
                              double[] b)
Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element addition of the arguments.

Parameters:
a - First term of the addition.
b - Second term of the addition.
Returns:
a new array r where r[i] = a[i] + b[i].
Throws:
DimensionMismatchException - if the array lengths differ.
Since:
3.1

ebeSubtract

public static double[] ebeSubtract(double[] a,
                                   double[] b)
Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element subtraction of the second argument from the first.

Parameters:
a - First term.
b - Element to be subtracted.
Returns:
a new array r where r[i] = a[i] - b[i].
Throws:
DimensionMismatchException - if the array lengths differ.
Since:
3.1

ebeMultiply

public static double[] ebeMultiply(double[] a,
                                   double[] b)
Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element multiplication of the arguments.

Parameters:
a - First factor of the multiplication.
b - Second factor of the multiplication.
Returns:
a new array r where r[i] = a[i] * b[i].
Throws:
DimensionMismatchException - if the array lengths differ.
Since:
3.1

ebeDivide

public static double[] ebeDivide(double[] a,
                                 double[] b)
Creates an array whose contents will be the element-by-element division of the first argument by the second.

Parameters:
a - Numerator of the division.
b - Denominator of the division.
Returns:
a new array r where r[i] = a[i] / b[i].
Throws:
DimensionMismatchException - if the array lengths differ.
Since:
3.1

distance1

public static double distance1(double[] p1,
                               double[] p2)
Calculates the L1 (sum of abs) distance between two points.

Parameters:
p1 - the first point
p2 - the second point
Returns:
the L1 distance between the two points

distance1

public static int distance1(int[] p1,
                            int[] p2)
Calculates the L1 (sum of abs) distance between two points.

Parameters:
p1 - the first point
p2 - the second point
Returns:
the L1 distance between the two points

distance

public static double distance(double[] p1,
                              double[] p2)
Calculates the L2 (Euclidean) distance between two points.

Parameters:
p1 - the first point
p2 - the second point
Returns:
the L2 distance between the two points

distance

public static double distance(int[] p1,
                              int[] p2)
Calculates the L2 (Euclidean) distance between two points.

Parameters:
p1 - the first point
p2 - the second point
Returns:
the L2 distance between the two points

distanceInf

public static double distanceInf(double[] p1,
                                 double[] p2)
Calculates the L (max of abs) distance between two points.

Parameters:
p1 - the first point
p2 - the second point
Returns:
the L distance between the two points

distanceInf

public static int distanceInf(int[] p1,
                              int[] p2)
Calculates the L (max of abs) distance between two points.

Parameters:
p1 - the first point
p2 - the second point
Returns:
the L distance between the two points

isMonotonic

public static <T extends Comparable<? super T>> boolean isMonotonic(T[] val,
                                                                    MathArrays.OrderDirection dir,
                                                                    boolean strict)
Check that an array is monotonically increasing or decreasing.

Type Parameters:
T - the type of the elements in the specified array
Parameters:
val - Values.
dir - Ordering direction.
strict - Whether the order should be strict.
Returns:
true if sorted, false otherwise.

isMonotonic

public static boolean isMonotonic(double[] val,
                                  MathArrays.OrderDirection dir,
                                  boolean strict)
Check that an array is monotonically increasing or decreasing.

Parameters:
val - Values.
dir - Ordering direction.
strict - Whether the order should be strict.
Returns:
true if sorted, false otherwise.

checkOrder

public static boolean checkOrder(double[] val,
                                 MathArrays.OrderDirection dir,
                                 boolean strict,
                                 boolean abort)
                          throws NonMonotonicSequenceException
Check that the given array is sorted.

Parameters:
val - Values.
dir - Ordering direction.
strict - Whether the order should be strict.
abort - Whether to throw an exception if the check fails.
Returns:
true if the array is sorted.
Throws:
NonMonotonicSequenceException - if the array is not sorted and abort is true.

checkOrder

public static void checkOrder(double[] val,
                              MathArrays.OrderDirection dir,
                              boolean strict)
                       throws NonMonotonicSequenceException
Check that the given array is sorted.

Parameters:
val - Values.
dir - Ordering direction.
strict - Whether the order should be strict.
Throws:
NonMonotonicSequenceException - if the array is not sorted.
Since:
2.2

checkOrder

public static void checkOrder(double[] val)
                       throws NonMonotonicSequenceException
Check that the given array is sorted in strictly increasing order.

Parameters:
val - Values.
Throws:
NonMonotonicSequenceException - if the array is not sorted.
Since:
2.2

checkRectangular

public static void checkRectangular(long[][] in)
                             throws NullArgumentException,
                                    DimensionMismatchException
Throws DimensionMismatchException if the input array is not rectangular.

Parameters:
in - array to be tested
Throws:
NullArgumentException - if input array is null
DimensionMismatchException - if input array is not rectangular
Since:
3.1

checkPositive

public static void checkPositive(double[] in)
                          throws NotStrictlyPositiveException
Check that all entries of the input array are strictly positive.

Parameters:
in - Array to be tested
Throws:
NotStrictlyPositiveException - if any entries of the array are not strictly positive.
Since:
3.1

checkNonNegative

public static void checkNonNegative(long[] in)
                             throws NotPositiveException
Check that all entries of the input array are >= 0.

Parameters:
in - Array to be tested
Throws:
NotPositiveException - if any array entries are less than 0.
Since:
3.1

checkNonNegative

public static void checkNonNegative(long[][] in)
                             throws NotPositiveException
Check all entries of the input array are >= 0.

Parameters:
in - Array to be tested
Throws:
NotPositiveException - if any array entries are less than 0.
Since:
3.1

safeNorm

public static double safeNorm(double[] v)
Returns the Cartesian norm (2-norm), handling both overflow and underflow. Translation of the minpack enorm subroutine. The redistribution policy for MINPACK is available here, for convenience, it is reproduced below.

Minpack Copyright Notice (1999) University of Chicago. All rights reserved
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  3. The end-user documentation included with the redistribution, if any, must include the following acknowledgment: This product includes software developed by the University of Chicago, as Operator of Argonne National Laboratory. Alternately, this acknowledgment may appear in the software itself, if and wherever such third-party acknowledgments normally appear.
  4. WARRANTY DISCLAIMER. THE SOFTWARE IS SUPPLIED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER, THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, AND THEIR EMPLOYEES: (1) DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT, (2) DO NOT ASSUME ANY LEGAL LIABILITY OR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, OR USEFULNESS OF THE SOFTWARE, (3) DO NOT REPRESENT THAT USE OF THE SOFTWARE WOULD NOT INFRINGE PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, (4) DO NOT WARRANT THAT THE SOFTWARE WILL FUNCTION UNINTERRUPTED, THAT IT IS ERROR-FREE OR THAT ANY ERRORS WILL BE CORRECTED.
  5. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER, THE UNITED STATES, THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, OR THEIR EMPLOYEES: BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OF ANY KIND OR NATURE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFITS OR LOSS OF DATA, FOR ANY REASON WHATSOEVER, WHETHER SUCH LIABILITY IS ASSERTED ON THE BASIS OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR STRICT LIABILITY), OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF ANY OF SAID PARTIES HAS BEEN WARNED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSS OR DAMAGES.

    Parameters:
    v - Vector of doubles.
    Returns:
    the 2-norm of the vector.
    Since:
    2.2

    sortInPlace

    public static void sortInPlace(double[] x,
                                   double[]... yList)
                            throws DimensionMismatchException,
                                   NullArgumentException
    Sort an array in ascending order in place and perform the same reordering of entries on other arrays. For example, if x = [3, 1, 2], y = [1, 2, 3] and z = [0, 5, 7], then sortInPlace(x, y, z) will update x to [1, 2, 3], y to [2, 3, 1] and z to [5, 7, 0].

    Parameters:
    x - Array to be sorted and used as a pattern for permutation of the other arrays.
    yList - Set of arrays whose permutations of entries will follow those performed on x.
    Throws:
    DimensionMismatchException - if any y is not the same size as x.
    NullArgumentException - if x or any y is null.
    Since:
    3.0

    sortInPlace

    public static void sortInPlace(double[] x,
                                   MathArrays.OrderDirection dir,
                                   double[]... yList)
                            throws NullArgumentException,
                                   DimensionMismatchException
    Sort an array in place and perform the same reordering of entries on other arrays. This method works the same as the other sortInPlace method, but allows the order of the sort to be provided in the dir parameter.

    Parameters:
    x - Array to be sorted and used as a pattern for permutation of the other arrays.
    dir - Order direction.
    yList - Set of arrays whose permutations of entries will follow those performed on x.
    Throws:
    DimensionMismatchException - if any y is not the same size as x.
    NullArgumentException - if x or any y is null
    Since:
    3.0

    copyOf

    public static int[] copyOf(int[] source)
    Creates a copy of the source array.

    Parameters:
    source - Array to be copied.
    Returns:
    the copied array.

    copyOf

    public static double[] copyOf(double[] source)
    Creates a copy of the source array.

    Parameters:
    source - Array to be copied.
    Returns:
    the copied array.

    copyOf

    public static int[] copyOf(int[] source,
                               int len)
    Creates a copy of the source array.

    Parameters:
    source - Array to be copied.
    len - Number of entries to copy. If smaller then the source length, the copy will be truncated, if larger it will padded with zeroes.
    Returns:
    the copied array.

    copyOf

    public static double[] copyOf(double[] source,
                                  int len)
    Creates a copy of the source array.

    Parameters:
    source - Array to be copied.
    len - Number of entries to copy. If smaller then the source length, the copy will be truncated, if larger it will padded with zeroes.
    Returns:
    the copied array.

    linearCombination

    public static double linearCombination(double[] a,
                                           double[] b)
                                    throws DimensionMismatchException
    Compute a linear combination accurately. This method computes the sum of the products ai bi to high accuracy. It does so by using specific multiplication and addition algorithms to preserve accuracy and reduce cancellation effects.
    It is based on the 2005 paper Accurate Sum and Dot Product by Takeshi Ogita, Siegfried M. Rump, and Shin'ichi Oishi published in SIAM J. Sci. Comput.

    Parameters:
    a - Factors.
    b - Factors.
    Returns:
    Σi ai bi.
    Throws:
    DimensionMismatchException - if arrays dimensions don't match

    linearCombination

    public static double linearCombination(double a1,
                                           double b1,
                                           double a2,
                                           double b2)
    Compute a linear combination accurately.

    This method computes a1×b1 + a2×b2 to high accuracy. It does so by using specific multiplication and addition algorithms to preserve accuracy and reduce cancellation effects. It is based on the 2005 paper Accurate Sum and Dot Product by Takeshi Ogita, Siegfried M. Rump, and Shin'ichi Oishi published in SIAM J. Sci. Comput.

    Parameters:
    a1 - first factor of the first term
    b1 - second factor of the first term
    a2 - first factor of the second term
    b2 - second factor of the second term
    Returns:
    a1×b1 + a2×b2
    See Also:
    linearCombination(double, double, double, double, double, double), linearCombination(double, double, double, double, double, double, double, double)

    linearCombination

    public static double linearCombination(double a1,
                                           double b1,
                                           double a2,
                                           double b2,
                                           double a3,
                                           double b3)
    Compute a linear combination accurately.

    This method computes a1×b1 + a2×b2 + a3×b3 to high accuracy. It does so by using specific multiplication and addition algorithms to preserve accuracy and reduce cancellation effects. It is based on the 2005 paper Accurate Sum and Dot Product by Takeshi Ogita, Siegfried M. Rump, and Shin'ichi Oishi published in SIAM J. Sci. Comput.

    Parameters:
    a1 - first factor of the first term
    b1 - second factor of the first term
    a2 - first factor of the second term
    b2 - second factor of the second term
    a3 - first factor of the third term
    b3 - second factor of the third term
    Returns:
    a1×b1 + a2×b2 + a3×b3
    See Also:
    linearCombination(double, double, double, double), linearCombination(double, double, double, double, double, double, double, double)

    linearCombination

    public static double linearCombination(double a1,
                                           double b1,
                                           double a2,
                                           double b2,
                                           double a3,
                                           double b3,
                                           double a4,
                                           double b4)
    Compute a linear combination accurately.

    This method computes a1×b1 + a2×b2 + a3×b3 + a4×b4 to high accuracy. It does so by using specific multiplication and addition algorithms to preserve accuracy and reduce cancellation effects. It is based on the 2005 paper Accurate Sum and Dot Product by Takeshi Ogita, Siegfried M. Rump, and Shin'ichi Oishi published in SIAM J. Sci. Comput.

    Parameters:
    a1 - first factor of the first term
    b1 - second factor of the first term
    a2 - first factor of the second term
    b2 - second factor of the second term
    a3 - first factor of the third term
    b3 - second factor of the third term
    a4 - first factor of the third term
    b4 - second factor of the third term
    Returns:
    a1×b1 + a2×b2 + a3×b3 + a4×b4
    See Also:
    linearCombination(double, double, double, double), linearCombination(double, double, double, double, double, double)

    equals

    public static boolean equals(float[] x,
                                 float[] y)
    Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by Precision.equals(float,float).

    Parameters:
    x - first array
    y - second array
    Returns:
    true if the values are both null or have same dimension and equal elements.

    equalsIncludingNaN

    public static boolean equalsIncludingNaN(float[] x,
                                             float[] y)
    Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by this method.

    Parameters:
    x - first array
    y - second array
    Returns:
    true if the values are both null or have same dimension and equal elements
    Since:
    2.2

    equals

    public static boolean equals(double[] x,
                                 double[] y)
    Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by Precision.equals(double,double).

    Parameters:
    x - First array.
    y - Second array.
    Returns:
    true if the values are both null or have same dimension and equal elements.

    equalsIncludingNaN

    public static boolean equalsIncludingNaN(double[] x,
                                             double[] y)
    Returns true iff both arguments are null or have same dimensions and all their elements are equal as defined by this method.

    Parameters:
    x - First array.
    y - Second array.
    Returns:
    true if the values are both null or have same dimension and equal elements.
    Since:
    2.2

    normalizeArray

    public static double[] normalizeArray(double[] values,
                                          double normalizedSum)
                                   throws MathIllegalArgumentException,
                                          MathArithmeticException
    Normalizes an array to make it sum to a specified value. Returns the result of the transformation
        x |-> x * normalizedSum / sum
     
    applied to each non-NaN element x of the input array, where sum is the sum of the non-NaN entries in the input array.

    Throws IllegalArgumentException if normalizedSum is infinite or NaN and ArithmeticException if the input array contains any infinite elements or sums to 0.

    Ignores (i.e., copies unchanged to the output array) NaNs in the input array.

    Parameters:
    values - Input array to be normalized
    normalizedSum - Target sum for the normalized array
    Returns:
    the normalized array.
    Throws:
    MathArithmeticException - if the input array contains infinite elements or sums to zero.
    MathIllegalArgumentException - if the target sum is infinite or NaN.
    Since:
    2.1


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