001/*
002 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
003 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
004 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
005 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
006 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
007 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
008 *
009 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
010 *
011 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
012 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
013 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
014 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
015 * limitations under the License.
016 */
017package org.apache.commons.validator.routines;
018
019import java.io.Serializable;
020import java.net.IDN;
021import java.util.Arrays;
022import java.util.Locale;
023
024/**
025 * <p><b>Domain name</b> validation routines.</p>
026 *
027 * <p>
028 * This validator provides methods for validating Internet domain names
029 * and top-level domains.
030 * </p>
031 *
032 * <p>Domain names are evaluated according
033 * to the standards <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1034.txt">RFC1034</a>,
034 * section 3, and <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1123.txt">RFC1123</a>,
035 * section 2.1. No accommodation is provided for the specialized needs of
036 * other applications; if the domain name has been URL-encoded, for example,
037 * validation will fail even though the equivalent plaintext version of the
038 * same name would have passed.
039 * </p>
040 *
041 * <p>
042 * Validation is also provided for top-level domains (TLDs) as defined and
043 * maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA):
044 * </p>
045 *
046 *   <ul>
047 *     <li>{@link #isValidInfrastructureTld} - validates infrastructure TLDs
048 *         (<code>.arpa</code>, etc.)</li>
049 *     <li>{@link #isValidGenericTld} - validates generic TLDs
050 *         (<code>.com, .org</code>, etc.)</li>
051 *     <li>{@link #isValidCountryCodeTld} - validates country code TLDs
052 *         (<code>.us, .uk, .cn</code>, etc.)</li>
053 *   </ul>
054 *
055 * <p>
056 * (<b>NOTE</b>: This class does not provide IP address lookup for domain names or
057 * methods to ensure that a given domain name matches a specific IP; see
058 * {@link java.net.InetAddress} for that functionality.)
059 * </p>
060 *
061 * @version $Revision: 1740822 $
062 * @since Validator 1.4
063 */
064public class DomainValidator implements Serializable {
065
066    private static final int MAX_DOMAIN_LENGTH = 253;
067
068    private static final String[] EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY = new String[0];
069
070    private static final long serialVersionUID = -4407125112880174009L;
071
072    // Regular expression strings for hostnames (derived from RFC2396 and RFC 1123)
073
074    // RFC2396: domainlabel   = alphanum | alphanum *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
075    // Max 63 characters
076    private static final String DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX = "\\p{Alnum}(?>[\\p{Alnum}-]{0,61}\\p{Alnum})?";
077
078    // RFC2396 toplabel = alpha | alpha *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
079    // Max 63 characters
080    private static final String TOP_LABEL_REGEX = "\\p{Alpha}(?>[\\p{Alnum}-]{0,61}\\p{Alnum})?";
081
082    // RFC2396 hostname = *( domainlabel "." ) toplabel [ "." ]
083    // Note that the regex currently requires both a domain label and a top level label, whereas
084    // the RFC does not. This is because the regex is used to detect if a TLD is present.
085    // If the match fails, input is checked against DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX (hostnameRegex)
086    // RFC1123 sec 2.1 allows hostnames to start with a digit
087    private static final String DOMAIN_NAME_REGEX =
088            "^(?:" + DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX + "\\.)+" + "(" + TOP_LABEL_REGEX + ")\\.?$";
089
090    private final boolean allowLocal;
091
092    /**
093     * Singleton instance of this validator, which
094     *  doesn't consider local addresses as valid.
095     */
096    private static final DomainValidator DOMAIN_VALIDATOR = new DomainValidator(false);
097
098    /**
099     * Singleton instance of this validator, which does
100     *  consider local addresses valid.
101     */
102    private static final DomainValidator DOMAIN_VALIDATOR_WITH_LOCAL = new DomainValidator(true);
103
104    /**
105     * RegexValidator for matching domains.
106     */
107    private final RegexValidator domainRegex =
108            new RegexValidator(DOMAIN_NAME_REGEX);
109    /**
110     * RegexValidator for matching a local hostname
111     */
112    // RFC1123 sec 2.1 allows hostnames to start with a digit
113    private final RegexValidator hostnameRegex =
114            new RegexValidator(DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX);
115
116    /**
117     * Returns the singleton instance of this validator. It
118     *  will not consider local addresses as valid.
119     * @return the singleton instance of this validator
120     */
121    public static synchronized DomainValidator getInstance() {
122        inUse = true;
123        return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR;
124    }
125
126    /**
127     * Returns the singleton instance of this validator,
128     *  with local validation as required.
129     * @param allowLocal Should local addresses be considered valid?
130     * @return the singleton instance of this validator
131     */
132    public static synchronized DomainValidator getInstance(boolean allowLocal) {
133        inUse = true;
134        if(allowLocal) {
135            return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR_WITH_LOCAL;
136        }
137        return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR;
138    }
139
140    /** Private constructor. */
141    private DomainValidator(boolean allowLocal) {
142        this.allowLocal = allowLocal;
143    }
144
145    /**
146     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> parses
147     * as a valid domain name with a recognized top-level domain.
148     * The parsing is case-insensitive.
149     * @param domain the parameter to check for domain name syntax
150     * @return true if the parameter is a valid domain name
151     */
152    public boolean isValid(String domain) {
153        if (domain == null) {
154            return false;
155        }
156        domain = unicodeToASCII(domain);
157        // hosts must be equally reachable via punycode and Unicode;
158        // Unicode is never shorter than punycode, so check punycode
159        // if domain did not convert, then it will be caught by ASCII
160        // checks in the regexes below
161        if (domain.length() > MAX_DOMAIN_LENGTH) {
162            return false;
163        }
164        String[] groups = domainRegex.match(domain);
165        if (groups != null && groups.length > 0) {
166            return isValidTld(groups[0]);
167        }
168        return allowLocal && hostnameRegex.isValid(domain);
169    }
170
171    // package protected for unit test access
172    // must agree with isValid() above
173    final boolean isValidDomainSyntax(String domain) {
174        if (domain == null) {
175            return false;
176        }
177        domain = unicodeToASCII(domain);
178        // hosts must be equally reachable via punycode and Unicode;
179        // Unicode is never shorter than punycode, so check punycode
180        // if domain did not convert, then it will be caught by ASCII
181        // checks in the regexes below
182        if (domain.length() > MAX_DOMAIN_LENGTH) {
183            return false;
184        }
185        String[] groups = domainRegex.match(domain);
186        return (groups != null && groups.length > 0)
187                || hostnameRegex.isValid(domain);
188    }
189
190    /**
191     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
192     * IANA-defined top-level domain. Leading dots are ignored if present.
193     * The search is case-insensitive.
194     * @param tld the parameter to check for TLD status, not null
195     * @return true if the parameter is a TLD
196     */
197    public boolean isValidTld(String tld) {
198        tld = unicodeToASCII(tld);
199        if(allowLocal && isValidLocalTld(tld)) {
200            return true;
201        }
202        return isValidInfrastructureTld(tld)
203                || isValidGenericTld(tld)
204                || isValidCountryCodeTld(tld);
205    }
206
207    /**
208     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
209     * IANA-defined infrastructure top-level domain. Leading dots are
210     * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
211     * @param iTld the parameter to check for infrastructure TLD status, not null
212     * @return true if the parameter is an infrastructure TLD
213     */
214    public boolean isValidInfrastructureTld(String iTld) {
215        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(iTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
216        return arrayContains(INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS, key);
217    }
218
219    /**
220     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
221     * IANA-defined generic top-level domain. Leading dots are ignored
222     * if present. The search is case-insensitive.
223     * @param gTld the parameter to check for generic TLD status, not null
224     * @return true if the parameter is a generic TLD
225     */
226    public boolean isValidGenericTld(String gTld) {
227        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(gTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
228        return (arrayContains(GENERIC_TLDS, key) || arrayContains(genericTLDsPlus, key))
229                && !arrayContains(genericTLDsMinus, key);
230    }
231
232    /**
233     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
234     * IANA-defined country code top-level domain. Leading dots are
235     * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
236     * @param ccTld the parameter to check for country code TLD status, not null
237     * @return true if the parameter is a country code TLD
238     */
239    public boolean isValidCountryCodeTld(String ccTld) {
240        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(ccTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
241        return (arrayContains(COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS, key) || arrayContains(countryCodeTLDsPlus, key))
242                && !arrayContains(countryCodeTLDsMinus, key);
243    }
244
245    /**
246     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
247     * widely used "local" domains (localhost or localdomain). Leading dots are
248     * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
249     * @param lTld the parameter to check for local TLD status, not null
250     * @return true if the parameter is an local TLD
251     */
252    public boolean isValidLocalTld(String lTld) {
253        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(lTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
254        return arrayContains(LOCAL_TLDS, key);
255    }
256
257    private String chompLeadingDot(String str) {
258        if (str.startsWith(".")) {
259            return str.substring(1);
260        }
261        return str;
262    }
263
264    // ---------------------------------------------
265    // ----- TLDs defined by IANA
266    // ----- Authoritative and comprehensive list at:
267    // ----- http://data.iana.org/TLD/tlds-alpha-by-domain.txt
268
269    // Note that the above list is in UPPER case.
270    // The code currently converts strings to lower case (as per the tables below)
271
272    // IANA also provide an HTML list at http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db
273    // Note that this contains several country code entries which are NOT in
274    // the text file. These all have the "Not assigned" in the "Sponsoring Organisation" column
275    // For example (as of 2015-01-02):
276    // .bl  country-code    Not assigned
277    // .um  country-code    Not assigned
278
279    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
280    private static final String[] INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS = new String[] {
281        "arpa",               // internet infrastructure
282    };
283
284    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
285    private static final String[] GENERIC_TLDS = new String[] {
286        // Taken from Version 2016042500, Last Updated Mon Apr 25 07:07:01 2016 UTC
287        "aaa", // aaa American Automobile Association, Inc.
288        "aarp", // aarp AARP
289        "abb", // abb ABB Ltd
290        "abbott", // abbott Abbott Laboratories, Inc.
291        "abbvie", // abbvie AbbVie Inc.
292        "abogado", // abogado Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
293        "abudhabi", // abudhabi Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre
294        "academy", // academy Half Oaks, LLC
295        "accenture", // accenture Accenture plc
296        "accountant", // accountant dot Accountant Limited
297        "accountants", // accountants Knob Town, LLC
298        "aco", // aco ACO Severin Ahlmann GmbH &amp; Co. KG
299        "active", // active The Active Network, Inc
300        "actor", // actor United TLD Holdco Ltd.
301        "adac", // adac Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club e.V. (ADAC)
302        "ads", // ads Charleston Road Registry Inc.
303        "adult", // adult ICM Registry AD LLC
304        "aeg", // aeg Aktiebolaget Electrolux
305        "aero", // aero Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautique (SITA INC USA)
306        "afl", // afl Australian Football League
307        "agakhan", // agakhan Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
308        "agency", // agency Steel Falls, LLC
309        "aig", // aig American International Group, Inc.
310        "airforce", // airforce United TLD Holdco Ltd.
311        "airtel", // airtel Bharti Airtel Limited
312        "akdn", // akdn Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
313        "alibaba", // alibaba Alibaba Group Holding Limited
314        "alipay", // alipay Alibaba Group Holding Limited
315        "allfinanz", // allfinanz Allfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft
316        "ally", // ally Ally Financial Inc.
317        "alsace", // alsace REGION D ALSACE
318        "amica", // amica Amica Mutual Insurance Company
319        "amsterdam", // amsterdam Gemeente Amsterdam
320        "analytics", // analytics Campus IP LLC
321        "android", // android Charleston Road Registry Inc.
322        "anquan", // anquan QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
323        "apartments", // apartments June Maple, LLC
324        "app", // app Charleston Road Registry Inc.
325        "apple", // apple Apple Inc.
326        "aquarelle", // aquarelle Aquarelle.com
327        "aramco", // aramco Aramco Services Company
328        "archi", // archi STARTING DOT LIMITED
329        "army", // army United TLD Holdco Ltd.
330        "arte", // arte Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne G.E.I.E.
331        "asia", // asia DotAsia Organisation Ltd.
332        "associates", // associates Baxter Hill, LLC
333        "attorney", // attorney United TLD Holdco, Ltd
334        "auction", // auction United TLD HoldCo, Ltd.
335        "audi", // audi AUDI Aktiengesellschaft
336        "audio", // audio Uniregistry, Corp.
337        "author", // author Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
338        "auto", // auto Uniregistry, Corp.
339        "autos", // autos DERAutos, LLC
340        "avianca", // avianca Aerovias del Continente Americano S.A. Avianca
341        "aws", // aws Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
342        "axa", // axa AXA SA
343        "azure", // azure Microsoft Corporation
344        "baby", // baby Johnson &amp; Johnson Services, Inc.
345        "baidu", // baidu Baidu, Inc.
346        "band", // band United TLD Holdco, Ltd
347        "bank", // bank fTLD Registry Services, LLC
348        "bar", // bar Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable
349        "barcelona", // barcelona Municipi de Barcelona
350        "barclaycard", // barclaycard Barclays Bank PLC
351        "barclays", // barclays Barclays Bank PLC
352        "barefoot", // barefoot Gallo Vineyards, Inc.
353        "bargains", // bargains Half Hallow, LLC
354        "bauhaus", // bauhaus Werkhaus GmbH
355        "bayern", // bayern Bayern Connect GmbH
356        "bbc", // bbc British Broadcasting Corporation
357        "bbva", // bbva BANCO BILBAO VIZCAYA ARGENTARIA, S.A.
358        "bcg", // bcg The Boston Consulting Group, Inc.
359        "bcn", // bcn Municipi de Barcelona
360        "beats", // beats Beats Electronics, LLC
361        "beer", // beer Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
362        "bentley", // bentley Bentley Motors Limited
363        "berlin", // berlin dotBERLIN GmbH &amp; Co. KG
364        "best", // best BestTLD Pty Ltd
365        "bet", // bet Afilias plc
366        "bharti", // bharti Bharti Enterprises (Holding) Private Limited
367        "bible", // bible American Bible Society
368        "bid", // bid dot Bid Limited
369        "bike", // bike Grand Hollow, LLC
370        "bing", // bing Microsoft Corporation
371        "bingo", // bingo Sand Cedar, LLC
372        "bio", // bio STARTING DOT LIMITED
373        "biz", // biz Neustar, Inc.
374        "black", // black Afilias Limited
375        "blackfriday", // blackfriday Uniregistry, Corp.
376        "bloomberg", // bloomberg Bloomberg IP Holdings LLC
377        "blue", // blue Afilias Limited
378        "bms", // bms Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
379        "bmw", // bmw Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft
380        "bnl", // bnl Banca Nazionale del Lavoro
381        "bnpparibas", // bnpparibas BNP Paribas
382        "boats", // boats DERBoats, LLC
383        "boehringer", // boehringer Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
384        "bom", // bom Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
385        "bond", // bond Bond University Limited
386        "boo", // boo Charleston Road Registry Inc.
387        "book", // book Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
388        "boots", // boots THE BOOTS COMPANY PLC
389        "bosch", // bosch Robert Bosch GMBH
390        "bostik", // bostik Bostik SA
391        "bot", // bot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
392        "boutique", // boutique Over Galley, LLC
393        "bradesco", // bradesco Banco Bradesco S.A.
394        "bridgestone", // bridgestone Bridgestone Corporation
395        "broadway", // broadway Celebrate Broadway, Inc.
396        "broker", // broker DOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD
397        "brother", // brother Brother Industries, Ltd.
398        "brussels", // brussels DNS.be vzw
399        "budapest", // budapest Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
400        "bugatti", // bugatti Bugatti International SA
401        "build", // build Plan Bee LLC
402        "builders", // builders Atomic Madison, LLC
403        "business", // business Spring Cross, LLC
404        "buy", // buy Amazon Registry Services, INC
405        "buzz", // buzz DOTSTRATEGY CO.
406        "bzh", // bzh Association www.bzh
407        "cab", // cab Half Sunset, LLC
408        "cafe", // cafe Pioneer Canyon, LLC
409        "cal", // cal Charleston Road Registry Inc.
410        "call", // call Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
411        "camera", // camera Atomic Maple, LLC
412        "camp", // camp Delta Dynamite, LLC
413        "cancerresearch", // cancerresearch Australian Cancer Research Foundation
414        "canon", // canon Canon Inc.
415        "capetown", // capetown ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
416        "capital", // capital Delta Mill, LLC
417        "car", // car Cars Registry Limited
418        "caravan", // caravan Caravan International, Inc.
419        "cards", // cards Foggy Hollow, LLC
420        "care", // care Goose Cross, LLC
421        "career", // career dotCareer LLC
422        "careers", // careers Wild Corner, LLC
423        "cars", // cars Uniregistry, Corp.
424        "cartier", // cartier Richemont DNS Inc.
425        "casa", // casa Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
426        "cash", // cash Delta Lake, LLC
427        "casino", // casino Binky Sky, LLC
428        "cat", // cat Fundacio puntCAT
429        "catering", // catering New Falls. LLC
430        "cba", // cba COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
431        "cbn", // cbn The Christian Broadcasting Network, Inc.
432        "ceb", // ceb The Corporate Executive Board Company
433        "center", // center Tin Mill, LLC
434        "ceo", // ceo CEOTLD Pty Ltd
435        "cern", // cern European Organization for Nuclear Research (&quot;CERN&quot;)
436        "cfa", // cfa CFA Institute
437        "cfd", // cfd DOTCFD REGISTRY LTD
438        "chanel", // chanel Chanel International B.V.
439        "channel", // channel Charleston Road Registry Inc.
440        "chase", // chase JPMorgan Chase &amp; Co.
441        "chat", // chat Sand Fields, LLC
442        "cheap", // cheap Sand Cover, LLC
443        "chloe", // chloe Richemont DNS Inc.
444        "christmas", // christmas Uniregistry, Corp.
445        "chrome", // chrome Charleston Road Registry Inc.
446        "church", // church Holly Fileds, LLC
447        "cipriani", // cipriani Hotel Cipriani Srl
448        "circle", // circle Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
449        "cisco", // cisco Cisco Technology, Inc.
450        "citic", // citic CITIC Group Corporation
451        "city", // city Snow Sky, LLC
452        "cityeats", // cityeats Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
453        "claims", // claims Black Corner, LLC
454        "cleaning", // cleaning Fox Shadow, LLC
455        "click", // click Uniregistry, Corp.
456        "clinic", // clinic Goose Park, LLC
457        "clinique", // clinique The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.
458        "clothing", // clothing Steel Lake, LLC
459        "cloud", // cloud ARUBA S.p.A.
460        "club", // club .CLUB DOMAINS, LLC
461        "clubmed", // clubmed Club Méditerranée S.A.
462        "coach", // coach Koko Island, LLC
463        "codes", // codes Puff Willow, LLC
464        "coffee", // coffee Trixy Cover, LLC
465        "college", // college XYZ.COM LLC
466        "cologne", // cologne NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH
467        "com", // com VeriSign Global Registry Services
468        "commbank", // commbank COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
469        "community", // community Fox Orchard, LLC
470        "company", // company Silver Avenue, LLC
471        "compare", // compare iSelect Ltd
472        "computer", // computer Pine Mill, LLC
473        "comsec", // comsec VeriSign, Inc.
474        "condos", // condos Pine House, LLC
475        "construction", // construction Fox Dynamite, LLC
476        "consulting", // consulting United TLD Holdco, LTD.
477        "contact", // contact Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
478        "contractors", // contractors Magic Woods, LLC
479        "cooking", // cooking Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
480        "cool", // cool Koko Lake, LLC
481        "coop", // coop DotCooperation LLC
482        "corsica", // corsica Collectivité Territoriale de Corse
483        "country", // country Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
484        "coupon", // coupon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
485        "coupons", // coupons Black Island, LLC
486        "courses", // courses OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
487        "credit", // credit Snow Shadow, LLC
488        "creditcard", // creditcard Binky Frostbite, LLC
489        "creditunion", // creditunion CUNA Performance Resources, LLC
490        "cricket", // cricket dot Cricket Limited
491        "crown", // crown Crown Equipment Corporation
492        "crs", // crs Federated Co-operatives Limited
493        "cruises", // cruises Spring Way, LLC
494        "csc", // csc Alliance-One Services, Inc.
495        "cuisinella", // cuisinella SALM S.A.S.
496        "cymru", // cymru Nominet UK
497        "cyou", // cyou Beijing Gamease Age Digital Technology Co., Ltd.
498        "dabur", // dabur Dabur India Limited
499        "dad", // dad Charleston Road Registry Inc.
500        "dance", // dance United TLD Holdco Ltd.
501        "date", // date dot Date Limited
502        "dating", // dating Pine Fest, LLC
503        "datsun", // datsun NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
504        "day", // day Charleston Road Registry Inc.
505        "dclk", // dclk Charleston Road Registry Inc.
506        "dealer", // dealer Dealer Dot Com, Inc.
507        "deals", // deals Sand Sunset, LLC
508        "degree", // degree United TLD Holdco, Ltd
509        "delivery", // delivery Steel Station, LLC
510        "dell", // dell Dell Inc.
511        "deloitte", // deloitte Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
512        "delta", // delta Delta Air Lines, Inc.
513        "democrat", // democrat United TLD Holdco Ltd.
514        "dental", // dental Tin Birch, LLC
515        "dentist", // dentist United TLD Holdco, Ltd
516        "desi", // desi Desi Networks LLC
517        "design", // design Top Level Design, LLC
518        "dev", // dev Charleston Road Registry Inc.
519        "diamonds", // diamonds John Edge, LLC
520        "diet", // diet Uniregistry, Corp.
521        "digital", // digital Dash Park, LLC
522        "direct", // direct Half Trail, LLC
523        "directory", // directory Extra Madison, LLC
524        "discount", // discount Holly Hill, LLC
525        "dnp", // dnp Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.
526        "docs", // docs Charleston Road Registry Inc.
527        "dog", // dog Koko Mill, LLC
528        "doha", // doha Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA)
529        "domains", // domains Sugar Cross, LLC
530//        "doosan", // doosan Doosan Corporation (retired)
531        "download", // download dot Support Limited
532        "drive", // drive Charleston Road Registry Inc.
533        "dubai", // dubai Dubai Smart Government Department
534        "durban", // durban ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
535        "dvag", // dvag Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
536        "earth", // earth Interlink Co., Ltd.
537        "eat", // eat Charleston Road Registry Inc.
538        "edeka", // edeka EDEKA Verband kaufmännischer Genossenschaften e.V.
539        "edu", // edu EDUCAUSE
540        "education", // education Brice Way, LLC
541        "email", // email Spring Madison, LLC
542        "emerck", // emerck Merck KGaA
543        "energy", // energy Binky Birch, LLC
544        "engineer", // engineer United TLD Holdco Ltd.
545        "engineering", // engineering Romeo Canyon
546        "enterprises", // enterprises Snow Oaks, LLC
547        "epson", // epson Seiko Epson Corporation
548        "equipment", // equipment Corn Station, LLC
549        "erni", // erni ERNI Group Holding AG
550        "esq", // esq Charleston Road Registry Inc.
551        "estate", // estate Trixy Park, LLC
552        "eurovision", // eurovision European Broadcasting Union (EBU)
553        "eus", // eus Puntueus Fundazioa
554        "events", // events Pioneer Maple, LLC
555        "everbank", // everbank EverBank
556        "exchange", // exchange Spring Falls, LLC
557        "expert", // expert Magic Pass, LLC
558        "exposed", // exposed Victor Beach, LLC
559        "express", // express Sea Sunset, LLC
560        "extraspace", // extraspace Extra Space Storage LLC
561        "fage", // fage Fage International S.A.
562        "fail", // fail Atomic Pipe, LLC
563        "fairwinds", // fairwinds FairWinds Partners, LLC
564        "faith", // faith dot Faith Limited
565        "family", // family United TLD Holdco Ltd.
566        "fan", // fan Asiamix Digital Ltd
567        "fans", // fans Asiamix Digital Limited
568        "farm", // farm Just Maple, LLC
569        "fashion", // fashion Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
570        "fast", // fast Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
571        "feedback", // feedback Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
572        "ferrero", // ferrero Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
573        "film", // film Motion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd
574        "final", // final Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
575        "finance", // finance Cotton Cypress, LLC
576        "financial", // financial Just Cover, LLC
577        "firestone", // firestone Bridgestone Corporation
578        "firmdale", // firmdale Firmdale Holdings Limited
579        "fish", // fish Fox Woods, LLC
580        "fishing", // fishing Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
581        "fit", // fit Minds + Machines Group Limited
582        "fitness", // fitness Brice Orchard, LLC
583        "flickr", // flickr Yahoo! Domain Services Inc.
584        "flights", // flights Fox Station, LLC
585        "florist", // florist Half Cypress, LLC
586        "flowers", // flowers Uniregistry, Corp.
587        "flsmidth", // flsmidth FLSmidth A/S
588        "fly", // fly Charleston Road Registry Inc.
589        "foo", // foo Charleston Road Registry Inc.
590        "football", // football Foggy Farms, LLC
591        "ford", // ford Ford Motor Company
592        "forex", // forex DOTFOREX REGISTRY LTD
593        "forsale", // forsale United TLD Holdco, LLC
594        "forum", // forum Fegistry, LLC
595        "foundation", // foundation John Dale, LLC
596        "fox", // fox FOX Registry, LLC
597        "fresenius", // fresenius Fresenius Immobilien-Verwaltungs-GmbH
598        "frl", // frl FRLregistry B.V.
599        "frogans", // frogans OP3FT
600        "frontier", // frontier Frontier Communications Corporation
601        "ftr", // ftr Frontier Communications Corporation
602        "fund", // fund John Castle, LLC
603        "furniture", // furniture Lone Fields, LLC
604        "futbol", // futbol United TLD Holdco, Ltd.
605        "fyi", // fyi Silver Tigers, LLC
606        "gal", // gal Asociación puntoGAL
607        "gallery", // gallery Sugar House, LLC
608        "gallo", // gallo Gallo Vineyards, Inc.
609        "gallup", // gallup Gallup, Inc.
610        "game", // game Uniregistry, Corp.
611        "garden", // garden Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
612        "gbiz", // gbiz Charleston Road Registry Inc.
613        "gdn", // gdn Joint Stock Company "Navigation-information systems"
614        "gea", // gea GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft
615        "gent", // gent COMBELL GROUP NV/SA
616        "genting", // genting Resorts World Inc. Pte. Ltd.
617        "ggee", // ggee GMO Internet, Inc.
618        "gift", // gift Uniregistry, Corp.
619        "gifts", // gifts Goose Sky, LLC
620        "gives", // gives United TLD Holdco Ltd.
621        "giving", // giving Giving Limited
622        "glass", // glass Black Cover, LLC
623        "gle", // gle Charleston Road Registry Inc.
624        "global", // global Dot Global Domain Registry Limited
625        "globo", // globo Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A
626        "gmail", // gmail Charleston Road Registry Inc.
627        "gmbh", // gmbh Extra Dynamite, LLC
628        "gmo", // gmo GMO Internet, Inc.
629        "gmx", // gmx 1&amp;1 Mail &amp; Media GmbH
630        "gold", // gold June Edge, LLC
631        "goldpoint", // goldpoint YODOBASHI CAMERA CO.,LTD.
632        "golf", // golf Lone Falls, LLC
633        "goo", // goo NTT Resonant Inc.
634        "goog", // goog Charleston Road Registry Inc.
635        "google", // google Charleston Road Registry Inc.
636        "gop", // gop Republican State Leadership Committee, Inc.
637        "got", // got Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
638        "gov", // gov General Services Administration Attn: QTDC, 2E08 (.gov Domain Registration)
639        "grainger", // grainger Grainger Registry Services, LLC
640        "graphics", // graphics Over Madison, LLC
641        "gratis", // gratis Pioneer Tigers, LLC
642        "green", // green Afilias Limited
643        "gripe", // gripe Corn Sunset, LLC
644        "group", // group Romeo Town, LLC
645        "gucci", // gucci Guccio Gucci S.p.a.
646        "guge", // guge Charleston Road Registry Inc.
647        "guide", // guide Snow Moon, LLC
648        "guitars", // guitars Uniregistry, Corp.
649        "guru", // guru Pioneer Cypress, LLC
650        "hamburg", // hamburg Hamburg Top-Level-Domain GmbH
651        "hangout", // hangout Charleston Road Registry Inc.
652        "haus", // haus United TLD Holdco, LTD.
653        "hdfcbank", // hdfcbank HDFC Bank Limited
654        "health", // health DotHealth, LLC
655        "healthcare", // healthcare Silver Glen, LLC
656        "help", // help Uniregistry, Corp.
657        "helsinki", // helsinki City of Helsinki
658        "here", // here Charleston Road Registry Inc.
659        "hermes", // hermes Hermes International
660        "hiphop", // hiphop Uniregistry, Corp.
661        "hitachi", // hitachi Hitachi, Ltd.
662        "hiv", // hiv dotHIV gemeinnuetziger e.V.
663        "hockey", // hockey Half Willow, LLC
664        "holdings", // holdings John Madison, LLC
665        "holiday", // holiday Goose Woods, LLC
666        "homedepot", // homedepot Homer TLC, Inc.
667        "homes", // homes DERHomes, LLC
668        "honda", // honda Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
669        "horse", // horse Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
670        "host", // host DotHost Inc.
671        "hosting", // hosting Uniregistry, Corp.
672        "hoteles", // hoteles Travel Reservations SRL
673        "hotmail", // hotmail Microsoft Corporation
674        "house", // house Sugar Park, LLC
675        "how", // how Charleston Road Registry Inc.
676        "hsbc", // hsbc HSBC Holdings PLC
677        "htc", // htc HTC corporation
678        "hyundai", // hyundai Hyundai Motor Company
679        "ibm", // ibm International Business Machines Corporation
680        "icbc", // icbc Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited
681        "ice", // ice IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.
682        "icu", // icu One.com A/S
683        "ifm", // ifm ifm electronic gmbh
684        "iinet", // iinet Connect West Pty. Ltd.
685        "imamat", // imamat Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
686        "immo", // immo Auburn Bloom, LLC
687        "immobilien", // immobilien United TLD Holdco Ltd.
688        "industries", // industries Outer House, LLC
689        "infiniti", // infiniti NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
690        "info", // info Afilias Limited
691        "ing", // ing Charleston Road Registry Inc.
692        "ink", // ink Top Level Design, LLC
693        "institute", // institute Outer Maple, LLC
694        "insurance", // insurance fTLD Registry Services LLC
695        "insure", // insure Pioneer Willow, LLC
696        "int", // int Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
697        "international", // international Wild Way, LLC
698        "investments", // investments Holly Glen, LLC
699        "ipiranga", // ipiranga Ipiranga Produtos de Petroleo S.A.
700        "irish", // irish Dot-Irish LLC
701        "iselect", // iselect iSelect Ltd
702        "ismaili", // ismaili Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
703        "ist", // ist Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
704        "istanbul", // istanbul Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality / Medya A.S.
705        "itau", // itau Itau Unibanco Holding S.A.
706        "iwc", // iwc Richemont DNS Inc.
707        "jaguar", // jaguar Jaguar Land Rover Ltd
708        "java", // java Oracle Corporation
709        "jcb", // jcb JCB Co., Ltd.
710        "jcp", // jcp JCP Media, Inc.
711        "jetzt", // jetzt New TLD Company AB
712        "jewelry", // jewelry Wild Bloom, LLC
713        "jlc", // jlc Richemont DNS Inc.
714        "jll", // jll Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
715        "jmp", // jmp Matrix IP LLC
716        "jnj", // jnj Johnson &amp; Johnson Services, Inc.
717        "jobs", // jobs Employ Media LLC
718        "joburg", // joburg ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
719        "jot", // jot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
720        "joy", // joy Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
721        "jpmorgan", // jpmorgan JPMorgan Chase &amp; Co.
722        "jprs", // jprs Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd.
723        "juegos", // juegos Uniregistry, Corp.
724        "kaufen", // kaufen United TLD Holdco Ltd.
725        "kddi", // kddi KDDI CORPORATION
726        "kerryhotels", // kerryhotels Kerry Trading Co. Limited
727        "kerrylogistics", // kerrylogistics Kerry Trading Co. Limited
728        "kerryproperties", // kerryproperties Kerry Trading Co. Limited
729        "kfh", // kfh Kuwait Finance House
730        "kia", // kia KIA MOTORS CORPORATION
731        "kim", // kim Afilias Limited
732        "kinder", // kinder Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
733        "kitchen", // kitchen Just Goodbye, LLC
734        "kiwi", // kiwi DOT KIWI LIMITED
735        "koeln", // koeln NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH
736        "komatsu", // komatsu Komatsu Ltd.
737        "kpmg", // kpmg KPMG International Cooperative (KPMG International Genossenschaft)
738        "kpn", // kpn Koninklijke KPN N.V.
739        "krd", // krd KRG Department of Information Technology
740        "kred", // kred KredTLD Pty Ltd
741        "kuokgroup", // kuokgroup Kerry Trading Co. Limited
742        "kyoto", // kyoto Academic Institution: Kyoto Jyoho Gakuen
743        "lacaixa", // lacaixa CAIXA D&#39;ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA
744        "lamborghini", // lamborghini Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A.
745        "lamer", // lamer The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.
746        "lancaster", // lancaster LANCASTER
747        "land", // land Pine Moon, LLC
748        "landrover", // landrover Jaguar Land Rover Ltd
749        "lanxess", // lanxess LANXESS Corporation
750        "lasalle", // lasalle Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
751        "lat", // lat ECOM-LAC Federación de Latinoamérica y el Caribe para Internet y el Comercio Electrónico
752        "latrobe", // latrobe La Trobe University
753        "law", // law Minds + Machines Group Limited
754        "lawyer", // lawyer United TLD Holdco, Ltd
755        "lds", // lds IRI Domain Management, LLC
756        "lease", // lease Victor Trail, LLC
757        "leclerc", // leclerc A.C.D. LEC Association des Centres Distributeurs Edouard Leclerc
758        "legal", // legal Blue Falls, LLC
759        "lexus", // lexus TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
760        "lgbt", // lgbt Afilias Limited
761        "liaison", // liaison Liaison Technologies, Incorporated
762        "lidl", // lidl Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH &amp; Co. KG
763        "life", // life Trixy Oaks, LLC
764        "lifeinsurance", // lifeinsurance American Council of Life Insurers
765        "lifestyle", // lifestyle Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
766        "lighting", // lighting John McCook, LLC
767        "like", // like Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
768        "limited", // limited Big Fest, LLC
769        "limo", // limo Hidden Frostbite, LLC
770        "lincoln", // lincoln Ford Motor Company
771        "linde", // linde Linde Aktiengesellschaft
772        "link", // link Uniregistry, Corp.
773        "live", // live United TLD Holdco Ltd.
774        "living", // living Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
775        "lixil", // lixil LIXIL Group Corporation
776        "loan", // loan dot Loan Limited
777        "loans", // loans June Woods, LLC
778        "locus", // locus Locus Analytics LLC
779        "lol", // lol Uniregistry, Corp.
780        "london", // london Dot London Domains Limited
781        "lotte", // lotte Lotte Holdings Co., Ltd.
782        "lotto", // lotto Afilias Limited
783        "love", // love Merchant Law Group LLP
784        "ltd", // ltd Over Corner, LLC
785        "ltda", // ltda InterNetX Corp.
786        "lupin", // lupin LUPIN LIMITED
787        "luxe", // luxe Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
788        "luxury", // luxury Luxury Partners LLC
789        "madrid", // madrid Comunidad de Madrid
790        "maif", // maif Mutuelle Assurance Instituteur France (MAIF)
791        "maison", // maison Victor Frostbite, LLC
792        "makeup", // makeup L&#39;Oréal
793        "man", // man MAN SE
794        "management", // management John Goodbye, LLC
795        "mango", // mango PUNTO FA S.L.
796        "market", // market Unitied TLD Holdco, Ltd
797        "marketing", // marketing Fern Pass, LLC
798        "markets", // markets DOTMARKETS REGISTRY LTD
799        "marriott", // marriott Marriott Worldwide Corporation
800        "mba", // mba Lone Hollow, LLC
801        "med", // med Medistry LLC
802        "media", // media Grand Glen, LLC
803        "meet", // meet Afilias Limited
804        "melbourne", // melbourne The Crown in right of the State of Victoria, represented by its Department of State Development, Business and Innovation
805        "meme", // meme Charleston Road Registry Inc.
806        "memorial", // memorial Dog Beach, LLC
807        "men", // men Exclusive Registry Limited
808        "menu", // menu Wedding TLD2, LLC
809        "meo", // meo PT Comunicacoes S.A.
810        "miami", // miami Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
811        "microsoft", // microsoft Microsoft Corporation
812        "mil", // mil DoD Network Information Center
813        "mini", // mini Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft
814        "mls", // mls The Canadian Real Estate Association
815        "mma", // mma MMA IARD
816        "mobi", // mobi Afilias Technologies Limited dba dotMobi
817        "mobily", // mobily GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.
818        "moda", // moda United TLD Holdco Ltd.
819        "moe", // moe Interlink Co., Ltd.
820        "moi", // moi Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
821        "mom", // mom Uniregistry, Corp.
822        "monash", // monash Monash University
823        "money", // money Outer McCook, LLC
824        "montblanc", // montblanc Richemont DNS Inc.
825        "mormon", // mormon IRI Domain Management, LLC (&quot;Applicant&quot;)
826        "mortgage", // mortgage United TLD Holdco, Ltd
827        "moscow", // moscow Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID)
828        "motorcycles", // motorcycles DERMotorcycles, LLC
829        "mov", // mov Charleston Road Registry Inc.
830        "movie", // movie New Frostbite, LLC
831        "movistar", // movistar Telefónica S.A.
832        "mtn", // mtn MTN Dubai Limited
833        "mtpc", // mtpc Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation
834        "mtr", // mtr MTR Corporation Limited
835        "museum", // museum Museum Domain Management Association
836        "mutual", // mutual Northwestern Mutual MU TLD Registry, LLC
837        "mutuelle", // mutuelle Fédération Nationale de la Mutualité Française
838        "nadex", // nadex Nadex Domains, Inc
839        "nagoya", // nagoya GMO Registry, Inc.
840        "name", // name VeriSign Information Services, Inc.
841        "natura", // natura NATURA COSMÉTICOS S.A.
842        "navy", // navy United TLD Holdco Ltd.
843        "nec", // nec NEC Corporation
844        "net", // net VeriSign Global Registry Services
845        "netbank", // netbank COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
846        "network", // network Trixy Manor, LLC
847        "neustar", // neustar NeuStar, Inc.
848        "new", // new Charleston Road Registry Inc.
849        "news", // news United TLD Holdco Ltd.
850        "nexus", // nexus Charleston Road Registry Inc.
851        "ngo", // ngo Public Interest Registry
852        "nhk", // nhk Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK)
853        "nico", // nico DWANGO Co., Ltd.
854        "nikon", // nikon NIKON CORPORATION
855        "ninja", // ninja United TLD Holdco Ltd.
856        "nissan", // nissan NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
857        "nissay", // nissay Nippon Life Insurance Company
858        "nokia", // nokia Nokia Corporation
859        "northwesternmutual", // northwesternmutual Northwestern Mutual Registry, LLC
860        "norton", // norton Symantec Corporation
861        "nowruz", // nowruz Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
862        "nra", // nra NRA Holdings Company, INC.
863        "nrw", // nrw Minds + Machines GmbH
864        "ntt", // ntt NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION
865        "nyc", // nyc The City of New York by and through the New York City Department of Information Technology &amp; Telecommunications
866        "obi", // obi OBI Group Holding SE &amp; Co. KGaA
867        "office", // office Microsoft Corporation
868        "okinawa", // okinawa BusinessRalliart inc.
869        "omega", // omega The Swatch Group Ltd
870        "one", // one One.com A/S
871        "ong", // ong Public Interest Registry
872        "onl", // onl I-REGISTRY Ltd., Niederlassung Deutschland
873        "online", // online DotOnline Inc.
874        "ooo", // ooo INFIBEAM INCORPORATION LIMITED
875        "oracle", // oracle Oracle Corporation
876        "orange", // orange Orange Brand Services Limited
877        "org", // org Public Interest Registry (PIR)
878        "organic", // organic Afilias Limited
879        "origins", // origins The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.
880        "osaka", // osaka Interlink Co., Ltd.
881        "otsuka", // otsuka Otsuka Holdings Co., Ltd.
882        "ovh", // ovh OVH SAS
883        "page", // page Charleston Road Registry Inc.
884        "pamperedchef", // pamperedchef The Pampered Chef, Ltd.
885        "panerai", // panerai Richemont DNS Inc.
886        "paris", // paris City of Paris
887        "pars", // pars Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
888        "partners", // partners Magic Glen, LLC
889        "parts", // parts Sea Goodbye, LLC
890        "party", // party Blue Sky Registry Limited
891        "passagens", // passagens Travel Reservations SRL
892        "pet", // pet Afilias plc
893        "pharmacy", // pharmacy National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
894        "philips", // philips Koninklijke Philips N.V.
895        "photo", // photo Uniregistry, Corp.
896        "photography", // photography Sugar Glen, LLC
897        "photos", // photos Sea Corner, LLC
898        "physio", // physio PhysBiz Pty Ltd
899        "piaget", // piaget Richemont DNS Inc.
900        "pics", // pics Uniregistry, Corp.
901        "pictet", // pictet Pictet Europe S.A.
902        "pictures", // pictures Foggy Sky, LLC
903        "pid", // pid Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
904        "pin", // pin Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
905        "ping", // ping Ping Registry Provider, Inc.
906        "pink", // pink Afilias Limited
907        "pizza", // pizza Foggy Moon, LLC
908        "place", // place Snow Galley, LLC
909        "play", // play Charleston Road Registry Inc.
910        "playstation", // playstation Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.
911        "plumbing", // plumbing Spring Tigers, LLC
912        "plus", // plus Sugar Mill, LLC
913        "pohl", // pohl Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
914        "poker", // poker Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited
915        "porn", // porn ICM Registry PN LLC
916        "post", // post Universal Postal Union
917        "praxi", // praxi Praxi S.p.A.
918        "press", // press DotPress Inc.
919        "pro", // pro Registry Services Corporation dba RegistryPro
920        "prod", // prod Charleston Road Registry Inc.
921        "productions", // productions Magic Birch, LLC
922        "prof", // prof Charleston Road Registry Inc.
923        "progressive", // progressive Progressive Casualty Insurance Company
924        "promo", // promo Afilias plc
925        "properties", // properties Big Pass, LLC
926        "property", // property Uniregistry, Corp.
927        "protection", // protection XYZ.COM LLC
928        "pub", // pub United TLD Holdco Ltd.
929        "pwc", // pwc PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
930        "qpon", // qpon dotCOOL, Inc.
931        "quebec", // quebec PointQuébec Inc
932        "quest", // quest Quest ION Limited
933        "racing", // racing Premier Registry Limited
934        "read", // read Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
935        "realtor", // realtor Real Estate Domains LLC
936        "realty", // realty Fegistry, LLC
937        "recipes", // recipes Grand Island, LLC
938        "red", // red Afilias Limited
939        "redstone", // redstone Redstone Haute Couture Co., Ltd.
940        "redumbrella", // redumbrella Travelers TLD, LLC
941        "rehab", // rehab United TLD Holdco Ltd.
942        "reise", // reise Foggy Way, LLC
943        "reisen", // reisen New Cypress, LLC
944        "reit", // reit National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, Inc.
945        "ren", // ren Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co., Ltd.
946        "rent", // rent XYZ.COM LLC
947        "rentals", // rentals Big Hollow,LLC
948        "repair", // repair Lone Sunset, LLC
949        "report", // report Binky Glen, LLC
950        "republican", // republican United TLD Holdco Ltd.
951        "rest", // rest Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable
952        "restaurant", // restaurant Snow Avenue, LLC
953        "review", // review dot Review Limited
954        "reviews", // reviews United TLD Holdco, Ltd.
955        "rexroth", // rexroth Robert Bosch GMBH
956        "rich", // rich I-REGISTRY Ltd., Niederlassung Deutschland
957        "ricoh", // ricoh Ricoh Company, Ltd.
958        "rio", // rio Empresa Municipal de Informática SA - IPLANRIO
959        "rip", // rip United TLD Holdco Ltd.
960        "rocher", // rocher Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
961        "rocks", // rocks United TLD Holdco, LTD.
962        "rodeo", // rodeo Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
963        "room", // room Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
964        "rsvp", // rsvp Charleston Road Registry Inc.
965        "ruhr", // ruhr regiodot GmbH &amp; Co. KG
966        "run", // run Snow Park, LLC
967        "rwe", // rwe RWE AG
968        "ryukyu", // ryukyu BusinessRalliart inc.
969        "saarland", // saarland dotSaarland GmbH
970        "safe", // safe Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
971        "safety", // safety Safety Registry Services, LLC.
972        "sakura", // sakura SAKURA Internet Inc.
973        "sale", // sale United TLD Holdco, Ltd
974        "salon", // salon Outer Orchard, LLC
975        "samsung", // samsung SAMSUNG SDS CO., LTD
976        "sandvik", // sandvik Sandvik AB
977        "sandvikcoromant", // sandvikcoromant Sandvik AB
978        "sanofi", // sanofi Sanofi
979        "sap", // sap SAP AG
980        "sapo", // sapo PT Comunicacoes S.A.
981        "sarl", // sarl Delta Orchard, LLC
982        "sas", // sas Research IP LLC
983        "saxo", // saxo Saxo Bank A/S
984        "sbi", // sbi STATE BANK OF INDIA
985        "sbs", // sbs SPECIAL BROADCASTING SERVICE CORPORATION
986        "sca", // sca SVENSKA CELLULOSA AKTIEBOLAGET SCA (publ)
987        "scb", // scb The Siam Commercial Bank Public Company Limited (&quot;SCB&quot;)
988        "schaeffler", // schaeffler Schaeffler Technologies AG &amp; Co. KG
989        "schmidt", // schmidt SALM S.A.S.
990        "scholarships", // scholarships Scholarships.com, LLC
991        "school", // school Little Galley, LLC
992        "schule", // schule Outer Moon, LLC
993        "schwarz", // schwarz Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH &amp; Co. KG
994        "science", // science dot Science Limited
995        "scor", // scor SCOR SE
996        "scot", // scot Dot Scot Registry Limited
997        "seat", // seat SEAT, S.A. (Sociedad Unipersonal)
998        "security", // security XYZ.COM LLC
999        "seek", // seek Seek Limited
1000        "select", // select iSelect Ltd
1001        "sener", // sener Sener Ingeniería y Sistemas, S.A.
1002        "services", // services Fox Castle, LLC
1003        "seven", // seven Seven West Media Ltd
1004        "sew", // sew SEW-EURODRIVE GmbH &amp; Co KG
1005        "sex", // sex ICM Registry SX LLC
1006        "sexy", // sexy Uniregistry, Corp.
1007        "sfr", // sfr Societe Francaise du Radiotelephone - SFR
1008        "sharp", // sharp Sharp Corporation
1009        "shaw", // shaw Shaw Cablesystems G.P.
1010        "shell", // shell Shell Information Technology International Inc
1011        "shia", // shia Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1012        "shiksha", // shiksha Afilias Limited
1013        "shoes", // shoes Binky Galley, LLC
1014        "shouji", // shouji QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
1015        "show", // show Snow Beach, LLC
1016        "shriram", // shriram Shriram Capital Ltd.
1017        "sina", // sina Sina Corporation
1018        "singles", // singles Fern Madison, LLC
1019        "site", // site DotSite Inc.
1020        "ski", // ski STARTING DOT LIMITED
1021        "skin", // skin L&#39;Oréal
1022        "sky", // sky Sky International AG
1023        "skype", // skype Microsoft Corporation
1024        "smile", // smile Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1025        "sncf", // sncf SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais)
1026        "soccer", // soccer Foggy Shadow, LLC
1027        "social", // social United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1028        "softbank", // softbank SoftBank Group Corp.
1029        "software", // software United TLD Holdco, Ltd
1030        "sohu", // sohu Sohu.com Limited
1031        "solar", // solar Ruby Town, LLC
1032        "solutions", // solutions Silver Cover, LLC
1033        "song", // song Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1034        "sony", // sony Sony Corporation
1035        "soy", // soy Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1036        "space", // space DotSpace Inc.
1037        "spiegel", // spiegel SPIEGEL-Verlag Rudolf Augstein GmbH &amp; Co. KG
1038        "spot", // spot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1039        "spreadbetting", // spreadbetting DOTSPREADBETTING REGISTRY LTD
1040        "srl", // srl InterNetX Corp.
1041        "stada", // stada STADA Arzneimittel AG
1042        "star", // star Star India Private Limited
1043        "starhub", // starhub StarHub Limited
1044        "statebank", // statebank STATE BANK OF INDIA
1045        "statefarm", // statefarm State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company
1046        "statoil", // statoil Statoil ASA
1047        "stc", // stc Saudi Telecom Company
1048        "stcgroup", // stcgroup Saudi Telecom Company
1049        "stockholm", // stockholm Stockholms kommun
1050        "storage", // storage Self Storage Company LLC
1051        "store", // store DotStore Inc.
1052        "stream", // stream dot Stream Limited
1053        "studio", // studio United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1054        "study", // study OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
1055        "style", // style Binky Moon, LLC
1056        "sucks", // sucks Vox Populi Registry Ltd.
1057        "supplies", // supplies Atomic Fields, LLC
1058        "supply", // supply Half Falls, LLC
1059        "support", // support Grand Orchard, LLC
1060        "surf", // surf Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1061        "surgery", // surgery Tin Avenue, LLC
1062        "suzuki", // suzuki SUZUKI MOTOR CORPORATION
1063        "swatch", // swatch The Swatch Group Ltd
1064        "swiss", // swiss Swiss Confederation
1065        "sydney", // sydney State of New South Wales, Department of Premier and Cabinet
1066        "symantec", // symantec Symantec Corporation
1067        "systems", // systems Dash Cypress, LLC
1068        "tab", // tab Tabcorp Holdings Limited
1069        "taipei", // taipei Taipei City Government
1070        "talk", // talk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1071        "taobao", // taobao Alibaba Group Holding Limited
1072        "tatamotors", // tatamotors Tata Motors Ltd
1073        "tatar", // tatar Limited Liability Company &quot;Coordination Center of Regional Domain of Tatarstan Republic&quot;
1074        "tattoo", // tattoo Uniregistry, Corp.
1075        "tax", // tax Storm Orchard, LLC
1076        "taxi", // taxi Pine Falls, LLC
1077        "tci", // tci Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1078        "team", // team Atomic Lake, LLC
1079        "tech", // tech Dot Tech LLC
1080        "technology", // technology Auburn Falls, LLC
1081        "tel", // tel Telnic Ltd.
1082        "telecity", // telecity TelecityGroup International Limited
1083        "telefonica", // telefonica Telefónica S.A.
1084        "temasek", // temasek Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited
1085        "tennis", // tennis Cotton Bloom, LLC
1086        "teva", // teva Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited
1087        "thd", // thd Homer TLC, Inc.
1088        "theater", // theater Blue Tigers, LLC
1089        "theatre", // theatre XYZ.COM LLC
1090        "tickets", // tickets Accent Media Limited
1091        "tienda", // tienda Victor Manor, LLC
1092        "tiffany", // tiffany Tiffany and Company
1093        "tips", // tips Corn Willow, LLC
1094        "tires", // tires Dog Edge, LLC
1095        "tirol", // tirol punkt Tirol GmbH
1096        "tmall", // tmall Alibaba Group Holding Limited
1097        "today", // today Pearl Woods, LLC
1098        "tokyo", // tokyo GMO Registry, Inc.
1099        "tools", // tools Pioneer North, LLC
1100        "top", // top Jiangsu Bangning Science &amp; Technology Co.,Ltd.
1101        "toray", // toray Toray Industries, Inc.
1102        "toshiba", // toshiba TOSHIBA Corporation
1103        "total", // total Total SA
1104        "tours", // tours Sugar Station, LLC
1105        "town", // town Koko Moon, LLC
1106        "toyota", // toyota TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
1107        "toys", // toys Pioneer Orchard, LLC
1108        "trade", // trade Elite Registry Limited
1109        "trading", // trading DOTTRADING REGISTRY LTD
1110        "training", // training Wild Willow, LLC
1111        "travel", // travel Tralliance Registry Management Company, LLC.
1112        "travelers", // travelers Travelers TLD, LLC
1113        "travelersinsurance", // travelersinsurance Travelers TLD, LLC
1114        "trust", // trust Artemis Internet Inc
1115        "trv", // trv Travelers TLD, LLC
1116        "tube", // tube Latin American Telecom LLC
1117        "tui", // tui TUI AG
1118        "tunes", // tunes Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1119        "tushu", // tushu Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1120        "tvs", // tvs T V SUNDRAM IYENGAR  &amp; SONS PRIVATE LIMITED
1121        "ubs", // ubs UBS AG
1122        "unicom", // unicom China United Network Communications Corporation Limited
1123        "university", // university Little Station, LLC
1124        "uno", // uno Dot Latin LLC
1125        "uol", // uol UBN INTERNET LTDA.
1126        "vacations", // vacations Atomic Tigers, LLC
1127        "vana", // vana Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
1128        "vegas", // vegas Dot Vegas, Inc.
1129        "ventures", // ventures Binky Lake, LLC
1130        "verisign", // verisign VeriSign, Inc.
1131        "versicherung", // versicherung dotversicherung-registry GmbH
1132        "vet", // vet United TLD Holdco, Ltd
1133        "viajes", // viajes Black Madison, LLC
1134        "video", // video United TLD Holdco, Ltd
1135        "vig", // vig VIENNA INSURANCE GROUP AG Wiener Versicherung Gruppe
1136        "viking", // viking Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.
1137        "villas", // villas New Sky, LLC
1138        "vin", // vin Holly Shadow, LLC
1139        "vip", // vip Minds + Machines Group Limited
1140        "virgin", // virgin Virgin Enterprises Limited
1141        "vision", // vision Koko Station, LLC
1142        "vista", // vista Vistaprint Limited
1143        "vistaprint", // vistaprint Vistaprint Limited
1144        "viva", // viva Saudi Telecom Company
1145        "vlaanderen", // vlaanderen DNS.be vzw
1146        "vodka", // vodka Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1147        "volkswagen", // volkswagen Volkswagen Group of America Inc.
1148        "vote", // vote Monolith Registry LLC
1149        "voting", // voting Valuetainment Corp.
1150        "voto", // voto Monolith Registry LLC
1151        "voyage", // voyage Ruby House, LLC
1152        "vuelos", // vuelos Travel Reservations SRL
1153        "wales", // wales Nominet UK
1154        "walter", // walter Sandvik AB
1155        "wang", // wang Zodiac Registry Limited
1156        "wanggou", // wanggou Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1157        "watch", // watch Sand Shadow, LLC
1158        "watches", // watches Richemont DNS Inc.
1159        "weather", // weather The Weather Channel, LLC
1160        "weatherchannel", // weatherchannel The Weather Channel, LLC
1161        "webcam", // webcam dot Webcam Limited
1162        "weber", // weber Saint-Gobain Weber SA
1163        "website", // website DotWebsite Inc.
1164        "wed", // wed Atgron, Inc.
1165        "wedding", // wedding Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1166        "weibo", // weibo Sina Corporation
1167        "weir", // weir Weir Group IP Limited
1168        "whoswho", // whoswho Who&#39;s Who Registry
1169        "wien", // wien punkt.wien GmbH
1170        "wiki", // wiki Top Level Design, LLC
1171        "williamhill", // williamhill William Hill Organization Limited
1172        "win", // win First Registry Limited
1173        "windows", // windows Microsoft Corporation
1174        "wine", // wine June Station, LLC
1175        "wme", // wme William Morris Endeavor Entertainment, LLC
1176        "wolterskluwer", // wolterskluwer Wolters Kluwer N.V.
1177        "work", // work Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1178        "works", // works Little Dynamite, LLC
1179        "world", // world Bitter Fields, LLC
1180        "wtc", // wtc World Trade Centers Association, Inc.
1181        "wtf", // wtf Hidden Way, LLC
1182        "xbox", // xbox Microsoft Corporation
1183        "xerox", // xerox Xerox DNHC LLC
1184        "xihuan", // xihuan QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
1185        "xin", // xin Elegant Leader Limited
1186        "xn--11b4c3d", // कॉम VeriSign Sarl
1187        "xn--1ck2e1b", // セール Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1188        "xn--1qqw23a", // 佛山 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd.
1189        "xn--30rr7y", // 慈善 Excellent First Limited
1190        "xn--3bst00m", // 集团 Eagle Horizon Limited
1191        "xn--3ds443g", // 在线 TLD REGISTRY LIMITED
1192        "xn--3pxu8k", // 点看 VeriSign Sarl
1193        "xn--42c2d9a", // คอม VeriSign Sarl
1194        "xn--45q11c", // 八卦 Zodiac Scorpio Limited
1195        "xn--4gbrim", // موقع Suhub Electronic Establishment
1196        "xn--55qw42g", // 公益 China Organizational Name Administration Center
1197        "xn--55qx5d", // 公司 Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China Internet Network Information Center)
1198        "xn--5tzm5g", // 网站 Global Website TLD Asia Limited
1199        "xn--6frz82g", // 移动 Afilias Limited
1200        "xn--6qq986b3xl", // 我爱你 Tycoon Treasure Limited
1201        "xn--80adxhks", // москва Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID)
1202        "xn--80asehdb", // онлайн CORE Association
1203        "xn--80aswg", // сайт CORE Association
1204        "xn--8y0a063a", // 联通 China United Network Communications Corporation Limited
1205        "xn--9dbq2a", // קום VeriSign Sarl
1206        "xn--9et52u", // 时尚 RISE VICTORY LIMITED
1207        "xn--9krt00a", // 微博 Sina Corporation
1208        "xn--b4w605ferd", // 淡马锡 Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited
1209        "xn--bck1b9a5dre4c", // ファッション Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1210        "xn--c1avg", // орг Public Interest Registry
1211        "xn--c2br7g", // नेट VeriSign Sarl
1212        "xn--cck2b3b", // ストア Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1213        "xn--cg4bki", // 삼성 SAMSUNG SDS CO., LTD
1214        "xn--czr694b", // 商标 HU YI GLOBAL INFORMATION RESOURCES(HOLDING) COMPANY.HONGKONG LIMITED
1215        "xn--czrs0t", // 商店 Wild Island, LLC
1216        "xn--czru2d", // 商城 Zodiac Aquarius Limited
1217        "xn--d1acj3b", // дети The Foundation for Network Initiatives “The Smart Internet”
1218        "xn--eckvdtc9d", // ポイント Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1219        "xn--efvy88h", // 新闻 Xinhua News Agency Guangdong Branch 新华通讯社广东分社
1220        "xn--estv75g", // 工行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited
1221        "xn--fct429k", // 家電 Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1222        "xn--fhbei", // كوم VeriSign Sarl
1223        "xn--fiq228c5hs", // 中文网 TLD REGISTRY LIMITED
1224        "xn--fiq64b", // 中信 CITIC Group Corporation
1225        "xn--fjq720a", // 娱乐 Will Bloom, LLC
1226        "xn--flw351e", // 谷歌 Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1227        "xn--g2xx48c", // 购物 Minds + Machines Group Limited
1228        "xn--gckr3f0f", // クラウド Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1229        "xn--hxt814e", // 网店 Zodiac Libra Limited
1230        "xn--i1b6b1a6a2e", // संगठन Public Interest Registry
1231        "xn--imr513n", // 餐厅 HU YI GLOBAL INFORMATION RESOURCES (HOLDING) COMPANY. HONGKONG LIMITED
1232        "xn--io0a7i", // 网络 Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China Internet Network Information Center)
1233        "xn--j1aef", // ком VeriSign Sarl
1234        "xn--jlq61u9w7b", // 诺基亚 Nokia Corporation
1235        "xn--jvr189m", // 食品 Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1236        "xn--kcrx77d1x4a", // 飞利浦 Koninklijke Philips N.V.
1237        "xn--kpu716f", // 手表 Richemont DNS Inc.
1238        "xn--kput3i", // 手机 Beijing RITT-Net Technology Development Co., Ltd
1239        "xn--mgba3a3ejt", // ارامكو Aramco Services Company
1240        "xn--mgbab2bd", // بازار CORE Association
1241        "xn--mgbb9fbpob", // موبايلي GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.
1242        "xn--mgbca7dzdo", // ابوظبي Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre
1243        "xn--mgbt3dhd", // همراه Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1244        "xn--mk1bu44c", // 닷컴 VeriSign Sarl
1245        "xn--mxtq1m", // 政府 Net-Chinese Co., Ltd.
1246        "xn--ngbc5azd", // شبكة International Domain Registry Pty. Ltd.
1247        "xn--ngbe9e0a", // بيتك Kuwait Finance House
1248        "xn--nqv7f", // 机构 Public Interest Registry
1249        "xn--nqv7fs00ema", // 组织机构 Public Interest Registry
1250        "xn--nyqy26a", // 健康 Stable Tone Limited
1251        "xn--p1acf", // рус Rusnames Limited
1252        "xn--pbt977c", // 珠宝 Richemont DNS Inc.
1253        "xn--pssy2u", // 大拿 VeriSign Sarl
1254        "xn--q9jyb4c", // みんな Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1255        "xn--qcka1pmc", // グーグル Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1256        "xn--rhqv96g", // 世界 Stable Tone Limited
1257        "xn--rovu88b", // 書籍 Amazon EU S.à r.l.
1258        "xn--ses554g", // 网址 KNET Co., Ltd
1259        "xn--t60b56a", // 닷넷 VeriSign Sarl
1260        "xn--tckwe", // コム VeriSign Sarl
1261        "xn--unup4y", // 游戏 Spring Fields, LLC
1262        "xn--vermgensberater-ctb", // VERMöGENSBERATER Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
1263        "xn--vermgensberatung-pwb", // VERMöGENSBERATUNG Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
1264        "xn--vhquv", // 企业 Dash McCook, LLC
1265        "xn--vuq861b", // 信息 Beijing Tele-info Network Technology Co., Ltd.
1266        "xn--w4r85el8fhu5dnra", // 嘉里大酒店 Kerry Trading Co. Limited
1267        "xn--xhq521b", // 广东 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd.
1268        "xn--zfr164b", // 政务 China Organizational Name Administration Center
1269        "xperia", // xperia Sony Mobile Communications AB
1270        "xxx", // xxx ICM Registry LLC
1271        "xyz", // xyz XYZ.COM LLC
1272        "yachts", // yachts DERYachts, LLC
1273        "yahoo", // yahoo Yahoo! Domain Services Inc.
1274        "yamaxun", // yamaxun Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1275        "yandex", // yandex YANDEX, LLC
1276        "yodobashi", // yodobashi YODOBASHI CAMERA CO.,LTD.
1277        "yoga", // yoga Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1278        "yokohama", // yokohama GMO Registry, Inc.
1279        "you", // you Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1280        "youtube", // youtube Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1281        "yun", // yun QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
1282        "zara", // zara Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (INDITEX, S.A.)
1283        "zero", // zero Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1284        "zip", // zip Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1285        "zone", // zone Outer Falls, LLC
1286        "zuerich", // zuerich Kanton Zürich (Canton of Zurich)
1287};
1288
1289    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1290    private static final String[] COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS = new String[] {
1291        "ac",                 // Ascension Island
1292        "ad",                 // Andorra
1293        "ae",                 // United Arab Emirates
1294        "af",                 // Afghanistan
1295        "ag",                 // Antigua and Barbuda
1296        "ai",                 // Anguilla
1297        "al",                 // Albania
1298        "am",                 // Armenia
1299//        "an",                 // Netherlands Antilles (retired)
1300        "ao",                 // Angola
1301        "aq",                 // Antarctica
1302        "ar",                 // Argentina
1303        "as",                 // American Samoa
1304        "at",                 // Austria
1305        "au",                 // Australia (includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands)
1306        "aw",                 // Aruba
1307        "ax",                 // Åland
1308        "az",                 // Azerbaijan
1309        "ba",                 // Bosnia and Herzegovina
1310        "bb",                 // Barbados
1311        "bd",                 // Bangladesh
1312        "be",                 // Belgium
1313        "bf",                 // Burkina Faso
1314        "bg",                 // Bulgaria
1315        "bh",                 // Bahrain
1316        "bi",                 // Burundi
1317        "bj",                 // Benin
1318        "bm",                 // Bermuda
1319        "bn",                 // Brunei Darussalam
1320        "bo",                 // Bolivia
1321        "br",                 // Brazil
1322        "bs",                 // Bahamas
1323        "bt",                 // Bhutan
1324        "bv",                 // Bouvet Island
1325        "bw",                 // Botswana
1326        "by",                 // Belarus
1327        "bz",                 // Belize
1328        "ca",                 // Canada
1329        "cc",                 // Cocos (Keeling) Islands
1330        "cd",                 // Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire)
1331        "cf",                 // Central African Republic
1332        "cg",                 // Republic of the Congo
1333        "ch",                 // Switzerland
1334        "ci",                 // Côte d'Ivoire
1335        "ck",                 // Cook Islands
1336        "cl",                 // Chile
1337        "cm",                 // Cameroon
1338        "cn",                 // China, mainland
1339        "co",                 // Colombia
1340        "cr",                 // Costa Rica
1341        "cu",                 // Cuba
1342        "cv",                 // Cape Verde
1343        "cw",                 // Curaçao
1344        "cx",                 // Christmas Island
1345        "cy",                 // Cyprus
1346        "cz",                 // Czech Republic
1347        "de",                 // Germany
1348        "dj",                 // Djibouti
1349        "dk",                 // Denmark
1350        "dm",                 // Dominica
1351        "do",                 // Dominican Republic
1352        "dz",                 // Algeria
1353        "ec",                 // Ecuador
1354        "ee",                 // Estonia
1355        "eg",                 // Egypt
1356        "er",                 // Eritrea
1357        "es",                 // Spain
1358        "et",                 // Ethiopia
1359        "eu",                 // European Union
1360        "fi",                 // Finland
1361        "fj",                 // Fiji
1362        "fk",                 // Falkland Islands
1363        "fm",                 // Federated States of Micronesia
1364        "fo",                 // Faroe Islands
1365        "fr",                 // France
1366        "ga",                 // Gabon
1367        "gb",                 // Great Britain (United Kingdom)
1368        "gd",                 // Grenada
1369        "ge",                 // Georgia
1370        "gf",                 // French Guiana
1371        "gg",                 // Guernsey
1372        "gh",                 // Ghana
1373        "gi",                 // Gibraltar
1374        "gl",                 // Greenland
1375        "gm",                 // The Gambia
1376        "gn",                 // Guinea
1377        "gp",                 // Guadeloupe
1378        "gq",                 // Equatorial Guinea
1379        "gr",                 // Greece
1380        "gs",                 // South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
1381        "gt",                 // Guatemala
1382        "gu",                 // Guam
1383        "gw",                 // Guinea-Bissau
1384        "gy",                 // Guyana
1385        "hk",                 // Hong Kong
1386        "hm",                 // Heard Island and McDonald Islands
1387        "hn",                 // Honduras
1388        "hr",                 // Croatia (Hrvatska)
1389        "ht",                 // Haiti
1390        "hu",                 // Hungary
1391        "id",                 // Indonesia
1392        "ie",                 // Ireland (Éire)
1393        "il",                 // Israel
1394        "im",                 // Isle of Man
1395        "in",                 // India
1396        "io",                 // British Indian Ocean Territory
1397        "iq",                 // Iraq
1398        "ir",                 // Iran
1399        "is",                 // Iceland
1400        "it",                 // Italy
1401        "je",                 // Jersey
1402        "jm",                 // Jamaica
1403        "jo",                 // Jordan
1404        "jp",                 // Japan
1405        "ke",                 // Kenya
1406        "kg",                 // Kyrgyzstan
1407        "kh",                 // Cambodia (Khmer)
1408        "ki",                 // Kiribati
1409        "km",                 // Comoros
1410        "kn",                 // Saint Kitts and Nevis
1411        "kp",                 // North Korea
1412        "kr",                 // South Korea
1413        "kw",                 // Kuwait
1414        "ky",                 // Cayman Islands
1415        "kz",                 // Kazakhstan
1416        "la",                 // Laos (currently being marketed as the official domain for Los Angeles)
1417        "lb",                 // Lebanon
1418        "lc",                 // Saint Lucia
1419        "li",                 // Liechtenstein
1420        "lk",                 // Sri Lanka
1421        "lr",                 // Liberia
1422        "ls",                 // Lesotho
1423        "lt",                 // Lithuania
1424        "lu",                 // Luxembourg
1425        "lv",                 // Latvia
1426        "ly",                 // Libya
1427        "ma",                 // Morocco
1428        "mc",                 // Monaco
1429        "md",                 // Moldova
1430        "me",                 // Montenegro
1431        "mg",                 // Madagascar
1432        "mh",                 // Marshall Islands
1433        "mk",                 // Republic of Macedonia
1434        "ml",                 // Mali
1435        "mm",                 // Myanmar
1436        "mn",                 // Mongolia
1437        "mo",                 // Macau
1438        "mp",                 // Northern Mariana Islands
1439        "mq",                 // Martinique
1440        "mr",                 // Mauritania
1441        "ms",                 // Montserrat
1442        "mt",                 // Malta
1443        "mu",                 // Mauritius
1444        "mv",                 // Maldives
1445        "mw",                 // Malawi
1446        "mx",                 // Mexico
1447        "my",                 // Malaysia
1448        "mz",                 // Mozambique
1449        "na",                 // Namibia
1450        "nc",                 // New Caledonia
1451        "ne",                 // Niger
1452        "nf",                 // Norfolk Island
1453        "ng",                 // Nigeria
1454        "ni",                 // Nicaragua
1455        "nl",                 // Netherlands
1456        "no",                 // Norway
1457        "np",                 // Nepal
1458        "nr",                 // Nauru
1459        "nu",                 // Niue
1460        "nz",                 // New Zealand
1461        "om",                 // Oman
1462        "pa",                 // Panama
1463        "pe",                 // Peru
1464        "pf",                 // French Polynesia With Clipperton Island
1465        "pg",                 // Papua New Guinea
1466        "ph",                 // Philippines
1467        "pk",                 // Pakistan
1468        "pl",                 // Poland
1469        "pm",                 // Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
1470        "pn",                 // Pitcairn Islands
1471        "pr",                 // Puerto Rico
1472        "ps",                 // Palestinian territories (PA-controlled West Bank and Gaza Strip)
1473        "pt",                 // Portugal
1474        "pw",                 // Palau
1475        "py",                 // Paraguay
1476        "qa",                 // Qatar
1477        "re",                 // Réunion
1478        "ro",                 // Romania
1479        "rs",                 // Serbia
1480        "ru",                 // Russia
1481        "rw",                 // Rwanda
1482        "sa",                 // Saudi Arabia
1483        "sb",                 // Solomon Islands
1484        "sc",                 // Seychelles
1485        "sd",                 // Sudan
1486        "se",                 // Sweden
1487        "sg",                 // Singapore
1488        "sh",                 // Saint Helena
1489        "si",                 // Slovenia
1490        "sj",                 // Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no)
1491        "sk",                 // Slovakia
1492        "sl",                 // Sierra Leone
1493        "sm",                 // San Marino
1494        "sn",                 // Senegal
1495        "so",                 // Somalia
1496        "sr",                 // Suriname
1497        "st",                 // São Tomé and Príncipe
1498        "su",                 // Soviet Union (deprecated)
1499        "sv",                 // El Salvador
1500        "sx",                 // Sint Maarten
1501        "sy",                 // Syria
1502        "sz",                 // Swaziland
1503        "tc",                 // Turks and Caicos Islands
1504        "td",                 // Chad
1505        "tf",                 // French Southern and Antarctic Lands
1506        "tg",                 // Togo
1507        "th",                 // Thailand
1508        "tj",                 // Tajikistan
1509        "tk",                 // Tokelau
1510        "tl",                 // East Timor (deprecated old code)
1511        "tm",                 // Turkmenistan
1512        "tn",                 // Tunisia
1513        "to",                 // Tonga
1514//        "tp",                 // East Timor (Retired)
1515        "tr",                 // Turkey
1516        "tt",                 // Trinidad and Tobago
1517        "tv",                 // Tuvalu
1518        "tw",                 // Taiwan, Republic of China
1519        "tz",                 // Tanzania
1520        "ua",                 // Ukraine
1521        "ug",                 // Uganda
1522        "uk",                 // United Kingdom
1523        "us",                 // United States of America
1524        "uy",                 // Uruguay
1525        "uz",                 // Uzbekistan
1526        "va",                 // Vatican City State
1527        "vc",                 // Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1528        "ve",                 // Venezuela
1529        "vg",                 // British Virgin Islands
1530        "vi",                 // U.S. Virgin Islands
1531        "vn",                 // Vietnam
1532        "vu",                 // Vanuatu
1533        "wf",                 // Wallis and Futuna
1534        "ws",                 // Samoa (formerly Western Samoa)
1535        "xn--3e0b707e", // 한국 KISA (Korea Internet &amp; Security Agency)
1536        "xn--45brj9c", // ভারত National Internet Exchange of India
1537        "xn--80ao21a", // қаз Association of IT Companies of Kazakhstan
1538        "xn--90a3ac", // срб Serbian National Internet Domain Registry (RNIDS)
1539        "xn--90ais", // ??? Reliable Software Inc.
1540        "xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd", // சிங்கப்பூர் Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd
1541        "xn--d1alf", // мкд Macedonian Academic Research Network Skopje
1542        "xn--e1a4c", // ею EURid vzw/asbl
1543        "xn--fiqs8s", // 中国 China Internet Network Information Center
1544        "xn--fiqz9s", // 中國 China Internet Network Information Center
1545        "xn--fpcrj9c3d", // భారత్ National Internet Exchange of India
1546        "xn--fzc2c9e2c", // ලංකා LK Domain Registry
1547        "xn--gecrj9c", // ભારત National Internet Exchange of India
1548        "xn--h2brj9c", // भारत National Internet Exchange of India
1549        "xn--j1amh", // укр Ukrainian Network Information Centre (UANIC), Inc.
1550        "xn--j6w193g", // 香港 Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Ltd.
1551        "xn--kprw13d", // 台湾 Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC)
1552        "xn--kpry57d", // 台灣 Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC)
1553        "xn--l1acc", // мон Datacom Co.,Ltd
1554        "xn--lgbbat1ad8j", // الجزائر CERIST
1555        "xn--mgb9awbf", // عمان Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA)
1556        "xn--mgba3a4f16a", // ایران Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM)
1557        "xn--mgbaam7a8h", // امارات Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA)
1558        "xn--mgbayh7gpa", // الاردن National Information Technology Center (NITC)
1559        "xn--mgbbh1a71e", // بھارت National Internet Exchange of India
1560        "xn--mgbc0a9azcg", // المغرب Agence Nationale de Réglementation des Télécommunications (ANRT)
1561        "xn--mgberp4a5d4ar", // السعودية Communications and Information Technology Commission
1562        "xn--mgbpl2fh", // ????? Sudan Internet Society
1563        "xn--mgbtx2b", // عراق Communications and Media Commission (CMC)
1564        "xn--mgbx4cd0ab", // مليسيا MYNIC Berhad
1565        "xn--mix891f", // 澳門 Bureau of Telecommunications Regulation (DSRT)
1566        "xn--node", // გე Information Technologies Development Center (ITDC)
1567        "xn--o3cw4h", // ไทย Thai Network Information Center Foundation
1568        "xn--ogbpf8fl", // سورية National Agency for Network Services (NANS)
1569        "xn--p1ai", // рф Coordination Center for TLD RU
1570        "xn--pgbs0dh", // تونس Agence Tunisienne d&#39;Internet
1571        "xn--qxam", // ελ ICS-FORTH GR
1572        "xn--s9brj9c", // ਭਾਰਤ National Internet Exchange of India
1573        "xn--wgbh1c", // مصر National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority - NTRA
1574        "xn--wgbl6a", // قطر Communications Regulatory Authority
1575        "xn--xkc2al3hye2a", // இலங்கை LK Domain Registry
1576        "xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h", // இந்தியா National Internet Exchange of India
1577        "xn--y9a3aq", // ??? Internet Society
1578        "xn--yfro4i67o", // 新加坡 Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd
1579        "xn--ygbi2ammx", // فلسطين Ministry of Telecom &amp; Information Technology (MTIT)
1580        "ye",                 // Yemen
1581        "yt",                 // Mayotte
1582        "za",                 // South Africa
1583        "zm",                 // Zambia
1584        "zw",                 // Zimbabwe
1585    };
1586
1587    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1588    private static final String[] LOCAL_TLDS = new String[] {
1589       "localdomain",         // Also widely used as localhost.localdomain
1590       "localhost",           // RFC2606 defined
1591    };
1592
1593    // Additional arrays to supplement or override the built in ones.
1594    // The PLUS arrays are valid keys, the MINUS arrays are invalid keys
1595
1596    /*
1597     * This field is used to detect whether the getInstance has been called.
1598     * After this, the method updateTLDOverride is not allowed to be called.
1599     * This field does not need to be volatile since it is only accessed from
1600     * synchronized methods. 
1601     */
1602    private static boolean inUse = false;
1603
1604    /*
1605     * These arrays are mutable, but they don't need to be volatile.
1606     * They can only be updated by the updateTLDOverride method, and any readers must get an instance
1607     * using the getInstance methods which are all (now) synchronised.
1608     */
1609    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1610    private static volatile String[] countryCodeTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1611
1612    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1613    private static volatile String[] genericTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1614
1615    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1616    private static volatile String[] countryCodeTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1617
1618    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1619    private static volatile String[] genericTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1620
1621    /**
1622     * enum used by {@link DomainValidator#updateTLDOverride(ArrayType, String[])}
1623     * to determine which override array to update / fetch
1624     * @since 1.5.0
1625     * @since 1.5.1 made public and added read-only array references
1626     */
1627    public enum ArrayType {
1628        /** Update (or get a copy of) the GENERIC_TLDS_PLUS table containing additonal generic TLDs */
1629        GENERIC_PLUS,
1630        /** Update (or get a copy of) the GENERIC_TLDS_MINUS table containing deleted generic TLDs */
1631        GENERIC_MINUS,
1632        /** Update (or get a copy of) the COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_PLUS table containing additonal country code TLDs */
1633        COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS,
1634        /** Update (or get a copy of) the COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_MINUS table containing deleted country code TLDs */
1635        COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS,
1636        /** Get a copy of the generic TLDS table */
1637        GENERIC_RO,
1638        /** Get a copy of the country code table */
1639        COUNTRY_CODE_RO,
1640        /** Get a copy of the infrastructure table */
1641        INFRASTRUCTURE_RO,
1642        /** Get a copy of the local table */
1643        LOCAL_RO
1644        ;
1645    };
1646
1647    // For use by unit test code only
1648    static synchronized void clearTLDOverrides() {
1649        inUse = false;
1650        countryCodeTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1651        countryCodeTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1652        genericTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1653        genericTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1654    }
1655    /**
1656     * Update one of the TLD override arrays.
1657     * This must only be done at program startup, before any instances are accessed using getInstance.
1658     * <p>
1659     * For example:
1660     * <p>
1661     * {@code DomainValidator.updateTLDOverride(ArrayType.GENERIC_PLUS, new String[]{"apache"})}
1662     * <p>
1663     * To clear an override array, provide an empty array.
1664     *
1665     * @param table the table to update, see {@link DomainValidator.ArrayType}
1666     * Must be one of the following
1667     * <ul>
1668     * <li>COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS</li>
1669     * <li>COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS</li>
1670     * <li>GENERIC_MINUS</li>
1671     * <li>GENERIC_PLUS</li>
1672     * </ul>
1673     * @param tlds the array of TLDs, must not be null
1674     * @throws IllegalStateException if the method is called after getInstance
1675     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if one of the read-only tables is requested
1676     * @since 1.5.0
1677     */
1678    public static synchronized void updateTLDOverride(ArrayType table, String [] tlds) {
1679        if (inUse) {
1680            throw new IllegalStateException("Can only invoke this method before calling getInstance");
1681        }
1682        String [] copy = new String[tlds.length];
1683        // Comparisons are always done with lower-case entries
1684        for (int i = 0; i < tlds.length; i++) {
1685            copy[i] = tlds[i].toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
1686        }
1687        Arrays.sort(copy);
1688        switch(table) {
1689        case COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS:
1690            countryCodeTLDsMinus = copy;
1691            break;
1692        case COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS:
1693            countryCodeTLDsPlus = copy;
1694            break;
1695        case GENERIC_MINUS:
1696            genericTLDsMinus = copy;
1697            break;
1698        case GENERIC_PLUS:
1699            genericTLDsPlus = copy;
1700            break;
1701        case COUNTRY_CODE_RO:
1702        case GENERIC_RO:
1703        case INFRASTRUCTURE_RO:
1704        case LOCAL_RO:
1705            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot update the table: " + table);
1706        default:
1707            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unexpected enum value: " + table);
1708        }
1709    }
1710
1711    /**
1712     * Get a copy of the internal array.
1713     * @param table the array type (any of the enum values)
1714     * @return a copy of the array
1715     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the table type is unexpected (should not happen)
1716     * @since 1.5.1
1717     */
1718    public static String [] getTLDEntries(ArrayType table) {
1719        final String array[];
1720        switch(table) {
1721        case COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS:
1722            array = countryCodeTLDsMinus;
1723            break;
1724        case COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS:
1725            array = countryCodeTLDsPlus;
1726            break;
1727        case GENERIC_MINUS:
1728            array = genericTLDsMinus;
1729            break;
1730        case GENERIC_PLUS:
1731            array = genericTLDsPlus;
1732            break;
1733        case GENERIC_RO:
1734            array = GENERIC_TLDS;
1735            break;
1736        case COUNTRY_CODE_RO:
1737            array = COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS;
1738            break;
1739        case INFRASTRUCTURE_RO:
1740            array = INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS;
1741            break;
1742        case LOCAL_RO:
1743            array = LOCAL_TLDS;
1744            break;
1745        default:
1746            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unexpected enum value: " + table);
1747        }
1748        return Arrays.copyOf(array, array.length); // clone the array
1749    }
1750
1751    /**
1752     * Converts potentially Unicode input to punycode.
1753     * If conversion fails, returns the original input.
1754     * 
1755     * @param input the string to convert, not null
1756     * @return converted input, or original input if conversion fails
1757     */
1758    // Needed by UrlValidator
1759    static String unicodeToASCII(String input) {
1760        if (isOnlyASCII(input)) { // skip possibly expensive processing
1761            return input;
1762        }
1763        try {
1764            final String ascii = IDN.toASCII(input);
1765            if (IDNBUGHOLDER.IDN_TOASCII_PRESERVES_TRAILING_DOTS) {
1766                return ascii;
1767            }
1768            final int length = input.length();
1769            if (length == 0) {// check there is a last character
1770                return input;
1771            }
1772            // RFC3490 3.1. 1)
1773            //            Whenever dots are used as label separators, the following
1774            //            characters MUST be recognized as dots: U+002E (full stop), U+3002
1775            //            (ideographic full stop), U+FF0E (fullwidth full stop), U+FF61
1776            //            (halfwidth ideographic full stop).
1777            char lastChar = input.charAt(length-1);// fetch original last char
1778            switch(lastChar) {
1779                case '\u002E': // "." full stop
1780                case '\u3002': // ideographic full stop
1781                case '\uFF0E': // fullwidth full stop
1782                case '\uFF61': // halfwidth ideographic full stop
1783                    return ascii + "."; // restore the missing stop
1784                default:
1785                    return ascii;
1786            }
1787        } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) { // input is not valid
1788            return input;
1789        }
1790    }
1791
1792    private static class IDNBUGHOLDER {
1793        private static boolean keepsTrailingDot() {
1794            final String input = "a."; // must be a valid name
1795            return input.equals(IDN.toASCII(input));
1796        }
1797        private static final boolean IDN_TOASCII_PRESERVES_TRAILING_DOTS = keepsTrailingDot();
1798    }
1799
1800    /*
1801     * Check if input contains only ASCII
1802     * Treats null as all ASCII
1803     */
1804    private static boolean isOnlyASCII(String input) {
1805        if (input == null) {
1806            return true;
1807        }
1808        for(int i=0; i < input.length(); i++) {
1809            if (input.charAt(i) > 0x7F) { // CHECKSTYLE IGNORE MagicNumber
1810                return false;
1811            }
1812        }
1813        return true;
1814    }
1815
1816    /**
1817     * Check if a sorted array contains the specified key
1818     *
1819     * @param sortedArray the array to search
1820     * @param key the key to find
1821     * @return {@code true} if the array contains the key
1822     */
1823    private static boolean arrayContains(String[] sortedArray, String key) {
1824        return Arrays.binarySearch(sortedArray, key) >= 0;
1825    }
1826}