001/*
002 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
003 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
004 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
005 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
006 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
007 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
008 *
009 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
010 *
011 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
012 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
013 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
014 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
015 * limitations under the License.
016 */
017package org.apache.commons.validator.routines;
018
019import java.io.Serializable;
020import java.net.IDN;
021import java.util.Arrays;
022import java.util.Locale;
023
024/**
025 * <p><b>Domain name</b> validation routines.</p>
026 *
027 * <p>
028 * This validator provides methods for validating Internet domain names
029 * and top-level domains.
030 * </p>
031 *
032 * <p>Domain names are evaluated according
033 * to the standards <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1034.txt">RFC1034</a>,
034 * section 3, and <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1123.txt">RFC1123</a>,
035 * section 2.1. No accommodation is provided for the specialized needs of
036 * other applications; if the domain name has been URL-encoded, for example,
037 * validation will fail even though the equivalent plaintext version of the
038 * same name would have passed.
039 * </p>
040 *
041 * <p>
042 * Validation is also provided for top-level domains (TLDs) as defined and
043 * maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA):
044 * </p>
045 *
046 *   <ul>
047 *     <li>{@link #isValidInfrastructureTld} - validates infrastructure TLDs
048 *         (<code>.arpa</code>, etc.)</li>
049 *     <li>{@link #isValidGenericTld} - validates generic TLDs
050 *         (<code>.com, .org</code>, etc.)</li>
051 *     <li>{@link #isValidCountryCodeTld} - validates country code TLDs
052 *         (<code>.us, .uk, .cn</code>, etc.)</li>
053 *   </ul>
054 *
055 * <p>
056 * (<b>NOTE</b>: This class does not provide IP address lookup for domain names or
057 * methods to ensure that a given domain name matches a specific IP; see
058 * {@link java.net.InetAddress} for that functionality.)
059 * </p>
060 *
061 * @version $Revision: 1781829 $
062 * @since Validator 1.4
063 */
064public class DomainValidator implements Serializable {
065
066    private static final int MAX_DOMAIN_LENGTH = 253;
067
068    private static final String[] EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY = new String[0];
069
070    private static final long serialVersionUID = -4407125112880174009L;
071
072    // Regular expression strings for hostnames (derived from RFC2396 and RFC 1123)
073
074    // RFC2396: domainlabel   = alphanum | alphanum *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
075    // Max 63 characters
076    private static final String DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX = "\\p{Alnum}(?>[\\p{Alnum}-]{0,61}\\p{Alnum})?";
077
078    // RFC2396 toplabel = alpha | alpha *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
079    // Max 63 characters
080    private static final String TOP_LABEL_REGEX = "\\p{Alpha}(?>[\\p{Alnum}-]{0,61}\\p{Alnum})?";
081
082    // RFC2396 hostname = *( domainlabel "." ) toplabel [ "." ]
083    // Note that the regex currently requires both a domain label and a top level label, whereas
084    // the RFC does not. This is because the regex is used to detect if a TLD is present.
085    // If the match fails, input is checked against DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX (hostnameRegex)
086    // RFC1123 sec 2.1 allows hostnames to start with a digit
087    private static final String DOMAIN_NAME_REGEX =
088            "^(?:" + DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX + "\\.)+" + "(" + TOP_LABEL_REGEX + ")\\.?$";
089
090    private final boolean allowLocal;
091
092    /**
093     * Singleton instance of this validator, which
094     *  doesn't consider local addresses as valid.
095     */
096    private static final DomainValidator DOMAIN_VALIDATOR = new DomainValidator(false);
097
098    /**
099     * Singleton instance of this validator, which does
100     *  consider local addresses valid.
101     */
102    private static final DomainValidator DOMAIN_VALIDATOR_WITH_LOCAL = new DomainValidator(true);
103
104    /**
105     * RegexValidator for matching domains.
106     */
107    private final RegexValidator domainRegex =
108            new RegexValidator(DOMAIN_NAME_REGEX);
109    /**
110     * RegexValidator for matching a local hostname
111     */
112    // RFC1123 sec 2.1 allows hostnames to start with a digit
113    private final RegexValidator hostnameRegex =
114            new RegexValidator(DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX);
115
116    /**
117     * Returns the singleton instance of this validator. It
118     *  will not consider local addresses as valid.
119     * @return the singleton instance of this validator
120     */
121    public static synchronized DomainValidator getInstance() {
122        inUse = true;
123        return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR;
124    }
125
126    /**
127     * Returns the singleton instance of this validator,
128     *  with local validation as required.
129     * @param allowLocal Should local addresses be considered valid?
130     * @return the singleton instance of this validator
131     */
132    public static synchronized DomainValidator getInstance(boolean allowLocal) {
133        inUse = true;
134        if(allowLocal) {
135            return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR_WITH_LOCAL;
136        }
137        return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR;
138    }
139
140    /** Private constructor. */
141    private DomainValidator(boolean allowLocal) {
142        this.allowLocal = allowLocal;
143    }
144
145    /**
146     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> parses
147     * as a valid domain name with a recognized top-level domain.
148     * The parsing is case-insensitive.
149     * @param domain the parameter to check for domain name syntax
150     * @return true if the parameter is a valid domain name
151     */
152    public boolean isValid(String domain) {
153        if (domain == null) {
154            return false;
155        }
156        domain = unicodeToASCII(domain);
157        // hosts must be equally reachable via punycode and Unicode;
158        // Unicode is never shorter than punycode, so check punycode
159        // if domain did not convert, then it will be caught by ASCII
160        // checks in the regexes below
161        if (domain.length() > MAX_DOMAIN_LENGTH) {
162            return false;
163        }
164        String[] groups = domainRegex.match(domain);
165        if (groups != null && groups.length > 0) {
166            return isValidTld(groups[0]);
167        }
168        return allowLocal && hostnameRegex.isValid(domain);
169    }
170
171    // package protected for unit test access
172    // must agree with isValid() above
173    final boolean isValidDomainSyntax(String domain) {
174        if (domain == null) {
175            return false;
176        }
177        domain = unicodeToASCII(domain);
178        // hosts must be equally reachable via punycode and Unicode;
179        // Unicode is never shorter than punycode, so check punycode
180        // if domain did not convert, then it will be caught by ASCII
181        // checks in the regexes below
182        if (domain.length() > MAX_DOMAIN_LENGTH) {
183            return false;
184        }
185        String[] groups = domainRegex.match(domain);
186        return (groups != null && groups.length > 0)
187                || hostnameRegex.isValid(domain);
188    }
189
190    /**
191     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
192     * IANA-defined top-level domain. Leading dots are ignored if present.
193     * The search is case-insensitive.
194     * @param tld the parameter to check for TLD status, not null
195     * @return true if the parameter is a TLD
196     */
197    public boolean isValidTld(String tld) {
198        tld = unicodeToASCII(tld);
199        if(allowLocal && isValidLocalTld(tld)) {
200            return true;
201        }
202        return isValidInfrastructureTld(tld)
203                || isValidGenericTld(tld)
204                || isValidCountryCodeTld(tld);
205    }
206
207    /**
208     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
209     * IANA-defined infrastructure top-level domain. Leading dots are
210     * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
211     * @param iTld the parameter to check for infrastructure TLD status, not null
212     * @return true if the parameter is an infrastructure TLD
213     */
214    public boolean isValidInfrastructureTld(String iTld) {
215        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(iTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
216        return arrayContains(INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS, key);
217    }
218
219    /**
220     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
221     * IANA-defined generic top-level domain. Leading dots are ignored
222     * if present. The search is case-insensitive.
223     * @param gTld the parameter to check for generic TLD status, not null
224     * @return true if the parameter is a generic TLD
225     */
226    public boolean isValidGenericTld(String gTld) {
227        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(gTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
228        return (arrayContains(GENERIC_TLDS, key) || arrayContains(genericTLDsPlus, key))
229                && !arrayContains(genericTLDsMinus, key);
230    }
231
232    /**
233     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
234     * IANA-defined country code top-level domain. Leading dots are
235     * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
236     * @param ccTld the parameter to check for country code TLD status, not null
237     * @return true if the parameter is a country code TLD
238     */
239    public boolean isValidCountryCodeTld(String ccTld) {
240        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(ccTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
241        return (arrayContains(COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS, key) || arrayContains(countryCodeTLDsPlus, key))
242                && !arrayContains(countryCodeTLDsMinus, key);
243    }
244
245    /**
246     * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
247     * widely used "local" domains (localhost or localdomain). Leading dots are
248     * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
249     * @param lTld the parameter to check for local TLD status, not null
250     * @return true if the parameter is an local TLD
251     */
252    public boolean isValidLocalTld(String lTld) {
253        final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(lTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
254        return arrayContains(LOCAL_TLDS, key);
255    }
256
257    private String chompLeadingDot(String str) {
258        if (str.startsWith(".")) {
259            return str.substring(1);
260        }
261        return str;
262    }
263
264    // ---------------------------------------------
265    // ----- TLDs defined by IANA
266    // ----- Authoritative and comprehensive list at:
267    // ----- http://data.iana.org/TLD/tlds-alpha-by-domain.txt
268
269    // Note that the above list is in UPPER case.
270    // The code currently converts strings to lower case (as per the tables below)
271
272    // IANA also provide an HTML list at http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db
273    // Note that this contains several country code entries which are NOT in
274    // the text file. These all have the "Not assigned" in the "Sponsoring Organisation" column
275    // For example (as of 2015-01-02):
276    // .bl  country-code    Not assigned
277    // .um  country-code    Not assigned
278
279    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
280    private static final String[] INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS = new String[] {
281        "arpa",               // internet infrastructure
282    };
283
284    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
285    private static final String[] GENERIC_TLDS = new String[] {
286        // Taken from Version 2017020400, Last Updated Sat Feb  4 07:07:01 2017 UTC
287        "aaa", // aaa American Automobile Association, Inc.
288        "aarp", // aarp AARP
289        "abarth", // abarth Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.
290        "abb", // abb ABB Ltd
291        "abbott", // abbott Abbott Laboratories, Inc.
292        "abbvie", // abbvie AbbVie Inc.
293        "abc", // abc Disney Enterprises, Inc.
294        "able", // able Able Inc.
295        "abogado", // abogado Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
296        "abudhabi", // abudhabi Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre
297        "academy", // academy Half Oaks, LLC
298        "accenture", // accenture Accenture plc
299        "accountant", // accountant dot Accountant Limited
300        "accountants", // accountants Knob Town, LLC
301        "aco", // aco ACO Severin Ahlmann GmbH &amp; Co. KG
302        "active", // active The Active Network, Inc
303        "actor", // actor United TLD Holdco Ltd.
304        "adac", // adac Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club e.V. (ADAC)
305        "ads", // ads Charleston Road Registry Inc.
306        "adult", // adult ICM Registry AD LLC
307        "aeg", // aeg Aktiebolaget Electrolux
308        "aero", // aero Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautique (SITA INC USA)
309        "aetna", // aetna Aetna Life Insurance Company
310        "afamilycompany", // afamilycompany Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.
311        "afl", // afl Australian Football League
312        "agakhan", // agakhan Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
313        "agency", // agency Steel Falls, LLC
314        "aig", // aig American International Group, Inc.
315        "aigo", // aigo aigo Digital Technology Co,Ltd.
316        "airbus", // airbus Airbus S.A.S.
317        "airforce", // airforce United TLD Holdco Ltd.
318        "airtel", // airtel Bharti Airtel Limited
319        "akdn", // akdn Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
320        "alfaromeo", // alfaromeo Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.
321        "alibaba", // alibaba Alibaba Group Holding Limited
322        "alipay", // alipay Alibaba Group Holding Limited
323        "allfinanz", // allfinanz Allfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft
324        "allstate", // allstate Allstate Fire and Casualty Insurance Company
325        "ally", // ally Ally Financial Inc.
326        "alsace", // alsace REGION D ALSACE
327        "alstom", // alstom ALSTOM
328        "americanexpress", // americanexpress American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.
329        "americanfamily", // americanfamily AmFam, Inc.
330        "amex", // amex American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.
331        "amfam", // amfam AmFam, Inc.
332        "amica", // amica Amica Mutual Insurance Company
333        "amsterdam", // amsterdam Gemeente Amsterdam
334        "analytics", // analytics Campus IP LLC
335        "android", // android Charleston Road Registry Inc.
336        "anquan", // anquan QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
337        "anz", // anz Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited
338        "aol", // aol AOL Inc.
339        "apartments", // apartments June Maple, LLC
340        "app", // app Charleston Road Registry Inc.
341        "apple", // apple Apple Inc.
342        "aquarelle", // aquarelle Aquarelle.com
343        "aramco", // aramco Aramco Services Company
344        "archi", // archi STARTING DOT LIMITED
345        "army", // army United TLD Holdco Ltd.
346        "art", // art UK Creative Ideas Limited
347        "arte", // arte Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne G.E.I.E.
348        "asda", // asda Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
349        "asia", // asia DotAsia Organisation Ltd.
350        "associates", // associates Baxter Hill, LLC
351        "athleta", // athleta The Gap, Inc.
352        "attorney", // attorney United TLD Holdco, Ltd
353        "auction", // auction United TLD HoldCo, Ltd.
354        "audi", // audi AUDI Aktiengesellschaft
355        "audible", // audible Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
356        "audio", // audio Uniregistry, Corp.
357        "auspost", // auspost Australian Postal Corporation
358        "author", // author Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
359        "auto", // auto Uniregistry, Corp.
360        "autos", // autos DERAutos, LLC
361        "avianca", // avianca Aerovias del Continente Americano S.A. Avianca
362        "aws", // aws Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
363        "axa", // axa AXA SA
364        "azure", // azure Microsoft Corporation
365        "baby", // baby Johnson &amp; Johnson Services, Inc.
366        "baidu", // baidu Baidu, Inc.
367        "banamex", // banamex Citigroup Inc.
368        "bananarepublic", // bananarepublic The Gap, Inc.
369        "band", // band United TLD Holdco, Ltd
370        "bank", // bank fTLD Registry Services, LLC
371        "bar", // bar Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable
372        "barcelona", // barcelona Municipi de Barcelona
373        "barclaycard", // barclaycard Barclays Bank PLC
374        "barclays", // barclays Barclays Bank PLC
375        "barefoot", // barefoot Gallo Vineyards, Inc.
376        "bargains", // bargains Half Hallow, LLC
377        "baseball", // baseball MLB Advanced Media DH, LLC
378        "basketball", // basketball Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA)
379        "bauhaus", // bauhaus Werkhaus GmbH
380        "bayern", // bayern Bayern Connect GmbH
381        "bbc", // bbc British Broadcasting Corporation
382        "bbt", // bbt BB&amp;T Corporation
383        "bbva", // bbva BANCO BILBAO VIZCAYA ARGENTARIA, S.A.
384        "bcg", // bcg The Boston Consulting Group, Inc.
385        "bcn", // bcn Municipi de Barcelona
386        "beats", // beats Beats Electronics, LLC
387        "beauty", // beauty L&#39;Oréal
388        "beer", // beer Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
389        "bentley", // bentley Bentley Motors Limited
390        "berlin", // berlin dotBERLIN GmbH &amp; Co. KG
391        "best", // best BestTLD Pty Ltd
392        "bestbuy", // bestbuy BBY Solutions, Inc.
393        "bet", // bet Afilias plc
394        "bharti", // bharti Bharti Enterprises (Holding) Private Limited
395        "bible", // bible American Bible Society
396        "bid", // bid dot Bid Limited
397        "bike", // bike Grand Hollow, LLC
398        "bing", // bing Microsoft Corporation
399        "bingo", // bingo Sand Cedar, LLC
400        "bio", // bio STARTING DOT LIMITED
401        "biz", // biz Neustar, Inc.
402        "black", // black Afilias Limited
403        "blackfriday", // blackfriday Uniregistry, Corp.
404        "blanco", // blanco BLANCO GmbH + Co KG
405        "blockbuster", // blockbuster Dish DBS Corporation
406        "blog", // blog Knock Knock WHOIS There, LLC
407        "bloomberg", // bloomberg Bloomberg IP Holdings LLC
408        "blue", // blue Afilias Limited
409        "bms", // bms Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
410        "bmw", // bmw Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft
411        "bnl", // bnl Banca Nazionale del Lavoro
412        "bnpparibas", // bnpparibas BNP Paribas
413        "boats", // boats DERBoats, LLC
414        "boehringer", // boehringer Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
415        "bofa", // bofa NMS Services, Inc.
416        "bom", // bom Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
417        "bond", // bond Bond University Limited
418        "boo", // boo Charleston Road Registry Inc.
419        "book", // book Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
420        "booking", // booking Booking.com B.V.
421        "boots", // boots THE BOOTS COMPANY PLC
422        "bosch", // bosch Robert Bosch GMBH
423        "bostik", // bostik Bostik SA
424        "boston", // boston Boston TLD Management, LLC
425        "bot", // bot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
426        "boutique", // boutique Over Galley, LLC
427        "box", // box NS1 Limited
428        "bradesco", // bradesco Banco Bradesco S.A.
429        "bridgestone", // bridgestone Bridgestone Corporation
430        "broadway", // broadway Celebrate Broadway, Inc.
431        "broker", // broker DOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD
432        "brother", // brother Brother Industries, Ltd.
433        "brussels", // brussels DNS.be vzw
434        "budapest", // budapest Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
435        "bugatti", // bugatti Bugatti International SA
436        "build", // build Plan Bee LLC
437        "builders", // builders Atomic Madison, LLC
438        "business", // business Spring Cross, LLC
439        "buy", // buy Amazon Registry Services, INC
440        "buzz", // buzz DOTSTRATEGY CO.
441        "bzh", // bzh Association www.bzh
442        "cab", // cab Half Sunset, LLC
443        "cafe", // cafe Pioneer Canyon, LLC
444        "cal", // cal Charleston Road Registry Inc.
445        "call", // call Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
446        "calvinklein", // calvinklein PVH gTLD Holdings LLC
447        "cam", // cam AC Webconnecting Holding B.V.
448        "camera", // camera Atomic Maple, LLC
449        "camp", // camp Delta Dynamite, LLC
450        "cancerresearch", // cancerresearch Australian Cancer Research Foundation
451        "canon", // canon Canon Inc.
452        "capetown", // capetown ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
453        "capital", // capital Delta Mill, LLC
454        "capitalone", // capitalone Capital One Financial Corporation
455        "car", // car Cars Registry Limited
456        "caravan", // caravan Caravan International, Inc.
457        "cards", // cards Foggy Hollow, LLC
458        "care", // care Goose Cross, LLC
459        "career", // career dotCareer LLC
460        "careers", // careers Wild Corner, LLC
461        "cars", // cars Uniregistry, Corp.
462        "cartier", // cartier Richemont DNS Inc.
463        "casa", // casa Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
464        "case", // case CNH Industrial N.V.
465        "caseih", // caseih CNH Industrial N.V.
466        "cash", // cash Delta Lake, LLC
467        "casino", // casino Binky Sky, LLC
468        "cat", // cat Fundacio puntCAT
469        "catering", // catering New Falls. LLC
470        "catholic", // catholic Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)
471        "cba", // cba COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
472        "cbn", // cbn The Christian Broadcasting Network, Inc.
473        "cbre", // cbre CBRE, Inc.
474        "cbs", // cbs CBS Domains Inc.
475        "ceb", // ceb The Corporate Executive Board Company
476        "center", // center Tin Mill, LLC
477        "ceo", // ceo CEOTLD Pty Ltd
478        "cern", // cern European Organization for Nuclear Research (&quot;CERN&quot;)
479        "cfa", // cfa CFA Institute
480        "cfd", // cfd DOTCFD REGISTRY LTD
481        "chanel", // chanel Chanel International B.V.
482        "channel", // channel Charleston Road Registry Inc.
483        "chase", // chase JPMorgan Chase &amp; Co.
484        "chat", // chat Sand Fields, LLC
485        "cheap", // cheap Sand Cover, LLC
486        "chintai", // chintai CHINTAI Corporation
487        "chloe", // chloe Richemont DNS Inc.
488        "christmas", // christmas Uniregistry, Corp.
489        "chrome", // chrome Charleston Road Registry Inc.
490        "chrysler", // chrysler FCA US LLC.
491        "church", // church Holly Fileds, LLC
492        "cipriani", // cipriani Hotel Cipriani Srl
493        "circle", // circle Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
494        "cisco", // cisco Cisco Technology, Inc.
495        "citadel", // citadel Citadel Domain LLC
496        "citi", // citi Citigroup Inc.
497        "citic", // citic CITIC Group Corporation
498        "city", // city Snow Sky, LLC
499        "cityeats", // cityeats Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
500        "claims", // claims Black Corner, LLC
501        "cleaning", // cleaning Fox Shadow, LLC
502        "click", // click Uniregistry, Corp.
503        "clinic", // clinic Goose Park, LLC
504        "clinique", // clinique The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.
505        "clothing", // clothing Steel Lake, LLC
506        "cloud", // cloud ARUBA S.p.A.
507        "club", // club .CLUB DOMAINS, LLC
508        "clubmed", // clubmed Club Méditerranée S.A.
509        "coach", // coach Koko Island, LLC
510        "codes", // codes Puff Willow, LLC
511        "coffee", // coffee Trixy Cover, LLC
512        "college", // college XYZ.COM LLC
513        "cologne", // cologne NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH
514        "com", // com VeriSign Global Registry Services
515        "comcast", // comcast Comcast IP Holdings I, LLC
516        "commbank", // commbank COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
517        "community", // community Fox Orchard, LLC
518        "company", // company Silver Avenue, LLC
519        "compare", // compare iSelect Ltd
520        "computer", // computer Pine Mill, LLC
521        "comsec", // comsec VeriSign, Inc.
522        "condos", // condos Pine House, LLC
523        "construction", // construction Fox Dynamite, LLC
524        "consulting", // consulting United TLD Holdco, LTD.
525        "contact", // contact Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
526        "contractors", // contractors Magic Woods, LLC
527        "cooking", // cooking Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
528        "cookingchannel", // cookingchannel Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
529        "cool", // cool Koko Lake, LLC
530        "coop", // coop DotCooperation LLC
531        "corsica", // corsica Collectivité Territoriale de Corse
532        "country", // country Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
533        "coupon", // coupon Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
534        "coupons", // coupons Black Island, LLC
535        "courses", // courses OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
536        "credit", // credit Snow Shadow, LLC
537        "creditcard", // creditcard Binky Frostbite, LLC
538        "creditunion", // creditunion CUNA Performance Resources, LLC
539        "cricket", // cricket dot Cricket Limited
540        "crown", // crown Crown Equipment Corporation
541        "crs", // crs Federated Co-operatives Limited
542        "cruise", // cruise Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.
543        "cruises", // cruises Spring Way, LLC
544        "csc", // csc Alliance-One Services, Inc.
545        "cuisinella", // cuisinella SALM S.A.S.
546        "cymru", // cymru Nominet UK
547        "cyou", // cyou Beijing Gamease Age Digital Technology Co., Ltd.
548        "dabur", // dabur Dabur India Limited
549        "dad", // dad Charleston Road Registry Inc.
550        "dance", // dance United TLD Holdco Ltd.
551        "data", // data Dish DBS Corporation
552        "date", // date dot Date Limited
553        "dating", // dating Pine Fest, LLC
554        "datsun", // datsun NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
555        "day", // day Charleston Road Registry Inc.
556        "dclk", // dclk Charleston Road Registry Inc.
557        "dds", // dds Minds + Machines Group Limited
558        "deal", // deal Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
559        "dealer", // dealer Dealer Dot Com, Inc.
560        "deals", // deals Sand Sunset, LLC
561        "degree", // degree United TLD Holdco, Ltd
562        "delivery", // delivery Steel Station, LLC
563        "dell", // dell Dell Inc.
564        "deloitte", // deloitte Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
565        "delta", // delta Delta Air Lines, Inc.
566        "democrat", // democrat United TLD Holdco Ltd.
567        "dental", // dental Tin Birch, LLC
568        "dentist", // dentist United TLD Holdco, Ltd
569        "desi", // desi Desi Networks LLC
570        "design", // design Top Level Design, LLC
571        "dev", // dev Charleston Road Registry Inc.
572        "dhl", // dhl Deutsche Post AG
573        "diamonds", // diamonds John Edge, LLC
574        "diet", // diet Uniregistry, Corp.
575        "digital", // digital Dash Park, LLC
576        "direct", // direct Half Trail, LLC
577        "directory", // directory Extra Madison, LLC
578        "discount", // discount Holly Hill, LLC
579        "discover", // discover Discover Financial Services
580        "dish", // dish Dish DBS Corporation
581        "diy", // diy Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
582        "dnp", // dnp Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.
583        "docs", // docs Charleston Road Registry Inc.
584        "doctor", // doctor Brice Trail, LLC
585        "dodge", // dodge FCA US LLC.
586        "dog", // dog Koko Mill, LLC
587        "doha", // doha Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA)
588        "domains", // domains Sugar Cross, LLC
589//            "doosan", // doosan Doosan Corporation (retired)
590        "dot", // dot Dish DBS Corporation
591        "download", // download dot Support Limited
592        "drive", // drive Charleston Road Registry Inc.
593        "dtv", // dtv Dish DBS Corporation
594        "dubai", // dubai Dubai Smart Government Department
595        "duck", // duck Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.
596        "dunlop", // dunlop The Goodyear Tire &amp; Rubber Company
597        "duns", // duns The Dun &amp; Bradstreet Corporation
598        "dupont", // dupont E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
599        "durban", // durban ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
600        "dvag", // dvag Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
601        "dvr", // dvr Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation
602        "earth", // earth Interlink Co., Ltd.
603        "eat", // eat Charleston Road Registry Inc.
604        "eco", // eco Big Room Inc.
605        "edeka", // edeka EDEKA Verband kaufmännischer Genossenschaften e.V.
606        "edu", // edu EDUCAUSE
607        "education", // education Brice Way, LLC
608        "email", // email Spring Madison, LLC
609        "emerck", // emerck Merck KGaA
610        "energy", // energy Binky Birch, LLC
611        "engineer", // engineer United TLD Holdco Ltd.
612        "engineering", // engineering Romeo Canyon
613        "enterprises", // enterprises Snow Oaks, LLC
614        "epost", // epost Deutsche Post AG
615        "epson", // epson Seiko Epson Corporation
616        "equipment", // equipment Corn Station, LLC
617        "ericsson", // ericsson Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson
618        "erni", // erni ERNI Group Holding AG
619        "esq", // esq Charleston Road Registry Inc.
620        "estate", // estate Trixy Park, LLC
621        "esurance", // esurance Esurance Insurance Company
622        "eurovision", // eurovision European Broadcasting Union (EBU)
623        "eus", // eus Puntueus Fundazioa
624        "events", // events Pioneer Maple, LLC
625        "everbank", // everbank EverBank
626        "exchange", // exchange Spring Falls, LLC
627        "expert", // expert Magic Pass, LLC
628        "exposed", // exposed Victor Beach, LLC
629        "express", // express Sea Sunset, LLC
630        "extraspace", // extraspace Extra Space Storage LLC
631        "fage", // fage Fage International S.A.
632        "fail", // fail Atomic Pipe, LLC
633        "fairwinds", // fairwinds FairWinds Partners, LLC
634        "faith", // faith dot Faith Limited
635        "family", // family United TLD Holdco Ltd.
636        "fan", // fan Asiamix Digital Ltd
637        "fans", // fans Asiamix Digital Limited
638        "farm", // farm Just Maple, LLC
639        "farmers", // farmers Farmers Insurance Exchange
640        "fashion", // fashion Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
641        "fast", // fast Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
642        "fedex", // fedex Federal Express Corporation
643        "feedback", // feedback Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
644        "ferrari", // ferrari Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.
645        "ferrero", // ferrero Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
646        "fiat", // fiat Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.
647        "fidelity", // fidelity Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC
648        "fido", // fido Rogers Communications Canada Inc.
649        "film", // film Motion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd
650        "final", // final Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
651        "finance", // finance Cotton Cypress, LLC
652        "financial", // financial Just Cover, LLC
653        "fire", // fire Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
654        "firestone", // firestone Bridgestone Corporation
655        "firmdale", // firmdale Firmdale Holdings Limited
656        "fish", // fish Fox Woods, LLC
657        "fishing", // fishing Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
658        "fit", // fit Minds + Machines Group Limited
659        "fitness", // fitness Brice Orchard, LLC
660        "flickr", // flickr Yahoo! Domain Services Inc.
661        "flights", // flights Fox Station, LLC
662        "flir", // flir FLIR Systems, Inc.
663        "florist", // florist Half Cypress, LLC
664        "flowers", // flowers Uniregistry, Corp.
665//        "flsmidth", // flsmidth FLSmidth A/S retired 2016-07-22
666        "fly", // fly Charleston Road Registry Inc.
667        "foo", // foo Charleston Road Registry Inc.
668        "food", // food Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
669        "foodnetwork", // foodnetwork Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
670        "football", // football Foggy Farms, LLC
671        "ford", // ford Ford Motor Company
672        "forex", // forex DOTFOREX REGISTRY LTD
673        "forsale", // forsale United TLD Holdco, LLC
674        "forum", // forum Fegistry, LLC
675        "foundation", // foundation John Dale, LLC
676        "fox", // fox FOX Registry, LLC
677        "free", // free Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
678        "fresenius", // fresenius Fresenius Immobilien-Verwaltungs-GmbH
679        "frl", // frl FRLregistry B.V.
680        "frogans", // frogans OP3FT
681        "frontdoor", // frontdoor Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
682        "frontier", // frontier Frontier Communications Corporation
683        "ftr", // ftr Frontier Communications Corporation
684        "fujitsu", // fujitsu Fujitsu Limited
685        "fujixerox", // fujixerox Xerox DNHC LLC
686        "fun", // fun DotSpace, Inc.
687        "fund", // fund John Castle, LLC
688        "furniture", // furniture Lone Fields, LLC
689        "futbol", // futbol United TLD Holdco, Ltd.
690        "fyi", // fyi Silver Tigers, LLC
691        "gal", // gal Asociación puntoGAL
692        "gallery", // gallery Sugar House, LLC
693        "gallo", // gallo Gallo Vineyards, Inc.
694        "gallup", // gallup Gallup, Inc.
695        "game", // game Uniregistry, Corp.
696        "games", // games United TLD Holdco Ltd.
697        "gap", // gap The Gap, Inc.
698        "garden", // garden Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
699        "gbiz", // gbiz Charleston Road Registry Inc.
700        "gdn", // gdn Joint Stock Company "Navigation-information systems"
701        "gea", // gea GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft
702        "gent", // gent COMBELL GROUP NV/SA
703        "genting", // genting Resorts World Inc. Pte. Ltd.
704        "george", // george Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
705        "ggee", // ggee GMO Internet, Inc.
706        "gift", // gift Uniregistry, Corp.
707        "gifts", // gifts Goose Sky, LLC
708        "gives", // gives United TLD Holdco Ltd.
709        "giving", // giving Giving Limited
710        "glade", // glade Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.
711        "glass", // glass Black Cover, LLC
712        "gle", // gle Charleston Road Registry Inc.
713        "global", // global Dot Global Domain Registry Limited
714        "globo", // globo Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A
715        "gmail", // gmail Charleston Road Registry Inc.
716        "gmbh", // gmbh Extra Dynamite, LLC
717        "gmo", // gmo GMO Internet, Inc.
718        "gmx", // gmx 1&amp;1 Mail &amp; Media GmbH
719        "godaddy", // godaddy Go Daddy East, LLC
720        "gold", // gold June Edge, LLC
721        "goldpoint", // goldpoint YODOBASHI CAMERA CO.,LTD.
722        "golf", // golf Lone Falls, LLC
723        "goo", // goo NTT Resonant Inc.
724        "goodhands", // goodhands Allstate Fire and Casualty Insurance Company
725        "goodyear", // goodyear The Goodyear Tire &amp; Rubber Company
726        "goog", // goog Charleston Road Registry Inc.
727        "google", // google Charleston Road Registry Inc.
728        "gop", // gop Republican State Leadership Committee, Inc.
729        "got", // got Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
730        "gov", // gov General Services Administration Attn: QTDC, 2E08 (.gov Domain Registration)
731        "grainger", // grainger Grainger Registry Services, LLC
732        "graphics", // graphics Over Madison, LLC
733        "gratis", // gratis Pioneer Tigers, LLC
734        "green", // green Afilias Limited
735        "gripe", // gripe Corn Sunset, LLC
736        "group", // group Romeo Town, LLC
737        "guardian", // guardian The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America
738        "gucci", // gucci Guccio Gucci S.p.a.
739        "guge", // guge Charleston Road Registry Inc.
740        "guide", // guide Snow Moon, LLC
741        "guitars", // guitars Uniregistry, Corp.
742        "guru", // guru Pioneer Cypress, LLC
743        "hair", // hair L&#39;Oreal
744        "hamburg", // hamburg Hamburg Top-Level-Domain GmbH
745        "hangout", // hangout Charleston Road Registry Inc.
746        "haus", // haus United TLD Holdco, LTD.
747        "hbo", // hbo HBO Registry Services, Inc.
748        "hdfc", // hdfc HOUSING DEVELOPMENT FINANCE CORPORATION LIMITED
749        "hdfcbank", // hdfcbank HDFC Bank Limited
750        "health", // health DotHealth, LLC
751        "healthcare", // healthcare Silver Glen, LLC
752        "help", // help Uniregistry, Corp.
753        "helsinki", // helsinki City of Helsinki
754        "here", // here Charleston Road Registry Inc.
755        "hermes", // hermes Hermes International
756        "hgtv", // hgtv Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
757        "hiphop", // hiphop Uniregistry, Corp.
758        "hisamitsu", // hisamitsu Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co.,Inc.
759        "hitachi", // hitachi Hitachi, Ltd.
760        "hiv", // hiv dotHIV gemeinnuetziger e.V.
761        "hkt", // hkt PCCW-HKT DataCom Services Limited
762        "hockey", // hockey Half Willow, LLC
763        "holdings", // holdings John Madison, LLC
764        "holiday", // holiday Goose Woods, LLC
765        "homedepot", // homedepot Homer TLC, Inc.
766        "homegoods", // homegoods The TJX Companies, Inc.
767        "homes", // homes DERHomes, LLC
768        "homesense", // homesense The TJX Companies, Inc.
769        "honda", // honda Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
770        "honeywell", // honeywell Honeywell GTLD LLC
771        "horse", // horse Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
772        "hospital", // hospital Ruby Pike, LLC
773        "host", // host DotHost Inc.
774        "hosting", // hosting Uniregistry, Corp.
775        "hot", // hot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
776        "hoteles", // hoteles Travel Reservations SRL
777        "hotmail", // hotmail Microsoft Corporation
778        "house", // house Sugar Park, LLC
779        "how", // how Charleston Road Registry Inc.
780        "hsbc", // hsbc HSBC Holdings PLC
781        "htc", // htc HTC corporation
782        "hughes", // hughes Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation
783        "hyatt", // hyatt Hyatt GTLD, L.L.C.
784        "hyundai", // hyundai Hyundai Motor Company
785        "ibm", // ibm International Business Machines Corporation
786        "icbc", // icbc Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited
787        "ice", // ice IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.
788        "icu", // icu One.com A/S
789        "ieee", // ieee IEEE Global LLC
790        "ifm", // ifm ifm electronic gmbh
791//        "iinet", // iinet Connect West Pty. Ltd. (Retired)
792        "ikano", // ikano Ikano S.A.
793        "imamat", // imamat Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
794        "imdb", // imdb Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
795        "immo", // immo Auburn Bloom, LLC
796        "immobilien", // immobilien United TLD Holdco Ltd.
797        "industries", // industries Outer House, LLC
798        "infiniti", // infiniti NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
799        "info", // info Afilias Limited
800        "ing", // ing Charleston Road Registry Inc.
801        "ink", // ink Top Level Design, LLC
802        "institute", // institute Outer Maple, LLC
803        "insurance", // insurance fTLD Registry Services LLC
804        "insure", // insure Pioneer Willow, LLC
805        "int", // int Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
806        "intel", // intel Intel Corporation
807        "international", // international Wild Way, LLC
808        "intuit", // intuit Intuit Administrative Services, Inc.
809        "investments", // investments Holly Glen, LLC
810        "ipiranga", // ipiranga Ipiranga Produtos de Petroleo S.A.
811        "irish", // irish Dot-Irish LLC
812        "iselect", // iselect iSelect Ltd
813        "ismaili", // ismaili Fondation Aga Khan (Aga Khan Foundation)
814        "ist", // ist Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
815        "istanbul", // istanbul Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality / Medya A.S.
816        "itau", // itau Itau Unibanco Holding S.A.
817        "itv", // itv ITV Services Limited
818        "iveco", // iveco CNH Industrial N.V.
819        "iwc", // iwc Richemont DNS Inc.
820        "jaguar", // jaguar Jaguar Land Rover Ltd
821        "java", // java Oracle Corporation
822        "jcb", // jcb JCB Co., Ltd.
823        "jcp", // jcp JCP Media, Inc.
824        "jeep", // jeep FCA US LLC.
825        "jetzt", // jetzt New TLD Company AB
826        "jewelry", // jewelry Wild Bloom, LLC
827        "jio", // jio Affinity Names, Inc.
828        "jlc", // jlc Richemont DNS Inc.
829        "jll", // jll Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
830        "jmp", // jmp Matrix IP LLC
831        "jnj", // jnj Johnson &amp; Johnson Services, Inc.
832        "jobs", // jobs Employ Media LLC
833        "joburg", // joburg ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
834        "jot", // jot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
835        "joy", // joy Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
836        "jpmorgan", // jpmorgan JPMorgan Chase &amp; Co.
837        "jprs", // jprs Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd.
838        "juegos", // juegos Uniregistry, Corp.
839        "juniper", // juniper JUNIPER NETWORKS, INC.
840        "kaufen", // kaufen United TLD Holdco Ltd.
841        "kddi", // kddi KDDI CORPORATION
842        "kerryhotels", // kerryhotels Kerry Trading Co. Limited
843        "kerrylogistics", // kerrylogistics Kerry Trading Co. Limited
844        "kerryproperties", // kerryproperties Kerry Trading Co. Limited
845        "kfh", // kfh Kuwait Finance House
846        "kia", // kia KIA MOTORS CORPORATION
847        "kim", // kim Afilias Limited
848        "kinder", // kinder Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
849        "kindle", // kindle Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
850        "kitchen", // kitchen Just Goodbye, LLC
851        "kiwi", // kiwi DOT KIWI LIMITED
852        "koeln", // koeln NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH
853        "komatsu", // komatsu Komatsu Ltd.
854        "kosher", // kosher Kosher Marketing Assets LLC
855        "kpmg", // kpmg KPMG International Cooperative (KPMG International Genossenschaft)
856        "kpn", // kpn Koninklijke KPN N.V.
857        "krd", // krd KRG Department of Information Technology
858        "kred", // kred KredTLD Pty Ltd
859        "kuokgroup", // kuokgroup Kerry Trading Co. Limited
860        "kyoto", // kyoto Academic Institution: Kyoto Jyoho Gakuen
861        "lacaixa", // lacaixa CAIXA D&#39;ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA
862        "ladbrokes", // ladbrokes LADBROKES INTERNATIONAL PLC
863        "lamborghini", // lamborghini Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A.
864        "lamer", // lamer The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.
865        "lancaster", // lancaster LANCASTER
866        "lancia", // lancia Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.
867        "lancome", // lancome L&#39;Oréal
868        "land", // land Pine Moon, LLC
869        "landrover", // landrover Jaguar Land Rover Ltd
870        "lanxess", // lanxess LANXESS Corporation
871        "lasalle", // lasalle Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
872        "lat", // lat ECOM-LAC Federación de Latinoamérica y el Caribe para Internet y el Comercio Electrónico
873        "latino", // latino Dish DBS Corporation
874        "latrobe", // latrobe La Trobe University
875        "law", // law Minds + Machines Group Limited
876        "lawyer", // lawyer United TLD Holdco, Ltd
877        "lds", // lds IRI Domain Management, LLC
878        "lease", // lease Victor Trail, LLC
879        "leclerc", // leclerc A.C.D. LEC Association des Centres Distributeurs Edouard Leclerc
880        "lefrak", // lefrak LeFrak Organization, Inc.
881        "legal", // legal Blue Falls, LLC
882        "lego", // lego LEGO Juris A/S
883        "lexus", // lexus TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
884        "lgbt", // lgbt Afilias Limited
885        "liaison", // liaison Liaison Technologies, Incorporated
886        "lidl", // lidl Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH &amp; Co. KG
887        "life", // life Trixy Oaks, LLC
888        "lifeinsurance", // lifeinsurance American Council of Life Insurers
889        "lifestyle", // lifestyle Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
890        "lighting", // lighting John McCook, LLC
891        "like", // like Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
892        "lilly", // lilly Eli Lilly and Company
893        "limited", // limited Big Fest, LLC
894        "limo", // limo Hidden Frostbite, LLC
895        "lincoln", // lincoln Ford Motor Company
896        "linde", // linde Linde Aktiengesellschaft
897        "link", // link Uniregistry, Corp.
898        "lipsy", // lipsy Lipsy Ltd
899        "live", // live United TLD Holdco Ltd.
900        "living", // living Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
901        "lixil", // lixil LIXIL Group Corporation
902        "loan", // loan dot Loan Limited
903        "loans", // loans June Woods, LLC
904        "locker", // locker Dish DBS Corporation
905        "locus", // locus Locus Analytics LLC
906        "loft", // loft Annco, Inc.
907        "lol", // lol Uniregistry, Corp.
908        "london", // london Dot London Domains Limited
909        "lotte", // lotte Lotte Holdings Co., Ltd.
910        "lotto", // lotto Afilias Limited
911        "love", // love Merchant Law Group LLP
912        "lpl", // lpl LPL Holdings, Inc.
913        "lplfinancial", // lplfinancial LPL Holdings, Inc.
914        "ltd", // ltd Over Corner, LLC
915        "ltda", // ltda InterNetX Corp.
916        "lundbeck", // lundbeck H. Lundbeck A/S
917        "lupin", // lupin LUPIN LIMITED
918        "luxe", // luxe Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
919        "luxury", // luxury Luxury Partners LLC
920        "macys", // macys Macys, Inc.
921        "madrid", // madrid Comunidad de Madrid
922        "maif", // maif Mutuelle Assurance Instituteur France (MAIF)
923        "maison", // maison Victor Frostbite, LLC
924        "makeup", // makeup L&#39;Oréal
925        "man", // man MAN SE
926        "management", // management John Goodbye, LLC
927        "mango", // mango PUNTO FA S.L.
928        "market", // market Unitied TLD Holdco, Ltd
929        "marketing", // marketing Fern Pass, LLC
930        "markets", // markets DOTMARKETS REGISTRY LTD
931        "marriott", // marriott Marriott Worldwide Corporation
932        "marshalls", // marshalls The TJX Companies, Inc.
933        "maserati", // maserati Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V.
934        "mattel", // mattel Mattel Sites, Inc.
935        "mba", // mba Lone Hollow, LLC
936        "mcd", // mcd McDonald’s Corporation
937        "mcdonalds", // mcdonalds McDonald’s Corporation
938        "mckinsey", // mckinsey McKinsey Holdings, Inc.
939        "med", // med Medistry LLC
940        "media", // media Grand Glen, LLC
941        "meet", // meet Afilias Limited
942        "melbourne", // melbourne The Crown in right of the State of Victoria, represented by its Department of State Development, Business and Innovation
943        "meme", // meme Charleston Road Registry Inc.
944        "memorial", // memorial Dog Beach, LLC
945        "men", // men Exclusive Registry Limited
946        "menu", // menu Wedding TLD2, LLC
947        "meo", // meo PT Comunicacoes S.A.
948        "metlife", // metlife MetLife Services and Solutions, LLC
949        "miami", // miami Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
950        "microsoft", // microsoft Microsoft Corporation
951        "mil", // mil DoD Network Information Center
952        "mini", // mini Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft
953        "mint", // mint Intuit Administrative Services, Inc.
954        "mit", // mit Massachusetts Institute of Technology
955        "mitsubishi", // mitsubishi Mitsubishi Corporation
956        "mlb", // mlb MLB Advanced Media DH, LLC
957        "mls", // mls The Canadian Real Estate Association
958        "mma", // mma MMA IARD
959        "mobi", // mobi Afilias Technologies Limited dba dotMobi
960        "mobile", // mobile Dish DBS Corporation
961        "mobily", // mobily GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.
962        "moda", // moda United TLD Holdco Ltd.
963        "moe", // moe Interlink Co., Ltd.
964        "moi", // moi Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
965        "mom", // mom Uniregistry, Corp.
966        "monash", // monash Monash University
967        "money", // money Outer McCook, LLC
968        "monster", // monster Monster Worldwide, Inc.
969        "montblanc", // montblanc Richemont DNS Inc.
970        "mopar", // mopar FCA US LLC.
971        "mormon", // mormon IRI Domain Management, LLC (&quot;Applicant&quot;)
972        "mortgage", // mortgage United TLD Holdco, Ltd
973        "moscow", // moscow Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID)
974        "moto", // moto Motorola Trademark Holdings, LLC
975        "motorcycles", // motorcycles DERMotorcycles, LLC
976        "mov", // mov Charleston Road Registry Inc.
977        "movie", // movie New Frostbite, LLC
978        "movistar", // movistar Telefónica S.A.
979        "msd", // msd MSD Registry Holdings, Inc.
980        "mtn", // mtn MTN Dubai Limited
981        "mtpc", // mtpc Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation
982        "mtr", // mtr MTR Corporation Limited
983        "museum", // museum Museum Domain Management Association
984        "mutual", // mutual Northwestern Mutual MU TLD Registry, LLC
985//        "mutuelle", // mutuelle Fédération Nationale de la Mutualité Française (Retired)
986        "nab", // nab National Australia Bank Limited
987        "nadex", // nadex Nadex Domains, Inc
988        "nagoya", // nagoya GMO Registry, Inc.
989        "name", // name VeriSign Information Services, Inc.
990        "nationwide", // nationwide Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company
991        "natura", // natura NATURA COSMÉTICOS S.A.
992        "navy", // navy United TLD Holdco Ltd.
993        "nba", // nba NBA REGISTRY, LLC
994        "nec", // nec NEC Corporation
995        "net", // net VeriSign Global Registry Services
996        "netbank", // netbank COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
997        "netflix", // netflix Netflix, Inc.
998        "network", // network Trixy Manor, LLC
999        "neustar", // neustar NeuStar, Inc.
1000        "new", // new Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1001        "newholland", // newholland CNH Industrial N.V.
1002        "news", // news United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1003        "next", // next Next plc
1004        "nextdirect", // nextdirect Next plc
1005        "nexus", // nexus Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1006        "nfl", // nfl NFL Reg Ops LLC
1007        "ngo", // ngo Public Interest Registry
1008        "nhk", // nhk Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK)
1009        "nico", // nico DWANGO Co., Ltd.
1010        "nike", // nike NIKE, Inc.
1011        "nikon", // nikon NIKON CORPORATION
1012        "ninja", // ninja United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1013        "nissan", // nissan NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
1014        "nissay", // nissay Nippon Life Insurance Company
1015        "nokia", // nokia Nokia Corporation
1016        "northwesternmutual", // northwesternmutual Northwestern Mutual Registry, LLC
1017        "norton", // norton Symantec Corporation
1018        "now", // now Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1019        "nowruz", // nowruz Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1020        "nowtv", // nowtv Starbucks (HK) Limited
1021        "nra", // nra NRA Holdings Company, INC.
1022        "nrw", // nrw Minds + Machines GmbH
1023        "ntt", // ntt NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION
1024        "nyc", // nyc The City of New York by and through the New York City Department of Information Technology &amp; Telecommunications
1025        "obi", // obi OBI Group Holding SE &amp; Co. KGaA
1026        "observer", // observer Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
1027        "off", // off Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.
1028        "office", // office Microsoft Corporation
1029        "okinawa", // okinawa BusinessRalliart inc.
1030        "olayan", // olayan Crescent Holding GmbH
1031        "olayangroup", // olayangroup Crescent Holding GmbH
1032        "oldnavy", // oldnavy The Gap, Inc.
1033        "ollo", // ollo Dish DBS Corporation
1034        "omega", // omega The Swatch Group Ltd
1035        "one", // one One.com A/S
1036        "ong", // ong Public Interest Registry
1037        "onl", // onl I-REGISTRY Ltd., Niederlassung Deutschland
1038        "online", // online DotOnline Inc.
1039        "onyourside", // onyourside Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company
1040        "ooo", // ooo INFIBEAM INCORPORATION LIMITED
1041        "open", // open American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.
1042        "oracle", // oracle Oracle Corporation
1043        "orange", // orange Orange Brand Services Limited
1044        "org", // org Public Interest Registry (PIR)
1045        "organic", // organic Afilias Limited
1046        "orientexpress", // orientexpress Orient Express
1047        "origins", // origins The Estée Lauder Companies Inc.
1048        "osaka", // osaka Interlink Co., Ltd.
1049        "otsuka", // otsuka Otsuka Holdings Co., Ltd.
1050        "ott", // ott Dish DBS Corporation
1051        "ovh", // ovh OVH SAS
1052        "page", // page Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1053        "pamperedchef", // pamperedchef The Pampered Chef, Ltd.
1054        "panasonic", // panasonic Panasonic Corporation
1055        "panerai", // panerai Richemont DNS Inc.
1056        "paris", // paris City of Paris
1057        "pars", // pars Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1058        "partners", // partners Magic Glen, LLC
1059        "parts", // parts Sea Goodbye, LLC
1060        "party", // party Blue Sky Registry Limited
1061        "passagens", // passagens Travel Reservations SRL
1062        "pay", // pay Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1063        "pccw", // pccw PCCW Enterprises Limited
1064        "pet", // pet Afilias plc
1065        "pfizer", // pfizer Pfizer Inc.
1066        "pharmacy", // pharmacy National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
1067        "philips", // philips Koninklijke Philips N.V.
1068        "phone", // phone Dish DBS Corporation
1069        "photo", // photo Uniregistry, Corp.
1070        "photography", // photography Sugar Glen, LLC
1071        "photos", // photos Sea Corner, LLC
1072        "physio", // physio PhysBiz Pty Ltd
1073        "piaget", // piaget Richemont DNS Inc.
1074        "pics", // pics Uniregistry, Corp.
1075        "pictet", // pictet Pictet Europe S.A.
1076        "pictures", // pictures Foggy Sky, LLC
1077        "pid", // pid Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
1078        "pin", // pin Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1079        "ping", // ping Ping Registry Provider, Inc.
1080        "pink", // pink Afilias Limited
1081        "pioneer", // pioneer Pioneer Corporation
1082        "pizza", // pizza Foggy Moon, LLC
1083        "place", // place Snow Galley, LLC
1084        "play", // play Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1085        "playstation", // playstation Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.
1086        "plumbing", // plumbing Spring Tigers, LLC
1087        "plus", // plus Sugar Mill, LLC
1088        "pnc", // pnc PNC Domain Co., LLC
1089        "pohl", // pohl Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
1090        "poker", // poker Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited
1091        "politie", // politie Politie Nederland
1092        "porn", // porn ICM Registry PN LLC
1093        "post", // post Universal Postal Union
1094        "pramerica", // pramerica Prudential Financial, Inc.
1095        "praxi", // praxi Praxi S.p.A.
1096        "press", // press DotPress Inc.
1097        "prime", // prime Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1098        "pro", // pro Registry Services Corporation dba RegistryPro
1099        "prod", // prod Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1100        "productions", // productions Magic Birch, LLC
1101        "prof", // prof Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1102        "progressive", // progressive Progressive Casualty Insurance Company
1103        "promo", // promo Afilias plc
1104        "properties", // properties Big Pass, LLC
1105        "property", // property Uniregistry, Corp.
1106        "protection", // protection XYZ.COM LLC
1107        "pru", // pru Prudential Financial, Inc.
1108        "prudential", // prudential Prudential Financial, Inc.
1109        "pub", // pub United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1110        "pwc", // pwc PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
1111        "qpon", // qpon dotCOOL, Inc.
1112        "quebec", // quebec PointQuébec Inc
1113        "quest", // quest Quest ION Limited
1114        "qvc", // qvc QVC, Inc.
1115        "racing", // racing Premier Registry Limited
1116        "radio", // radio European Broadcasting Union (EBU)
1117        "raid", // raid Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.
1118        "read", // read Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1119        "realestate", // realestate dotRealEstate LLC
1120        "realtor", // realtor Real Estate Domains LLC
1121        "realty", // realty Fegistry, LLC
1122        "recipes", // recipes Grand Island, LLC
1123        "red", // red Afilias Limited
1124        "redstone", // redstone Redstone Haute Couture Co., Ltd.
1125        "redumbrella", // redumbrella Travelers TLD, LLC
1126        "rehab", // rehab United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1127        "reise", // reise Foggy Way, LLC
1128        "reisen", // reisen New Cypress, LLC
1129        "reit", // reit National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, Inc.
1130        "reliance", // reliance Reliance Industries Limited
1131        "ren", // ren Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co., Ltd.
1132        "rent", // rent XYZ.COM LLC
1133        "rentals", // rentals Big Hollow,LLC
1134        "repair", // repair Lone Sunset, LLC
1135        "report", // report Binky Glen, LLC
1136        "republican", // republican United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1137        "rest", // rest Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable
1138        "restaurant", // restaurant Snow Avenue, LLC
1139        "review", // review dot Review Limited
1140        "reviews", // reviews United TLD Holdco, Ltd.
1141        "rexroth", // rexroth Robert Bosch GMBH
1142        "rich", // rich I-REGISTRY Ltd., Niederlassung Deutschland
1143        "richardli", // richardli Pacific Century Asset Management (HK) Limited
1144        "ricoh", // ricoh Ricoh Company, Ltd.
1145        "rightathome", // rightathome Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.
1146        "ril", // ril Reliance Industries Limited
1147        "rio", // rio Empresa Municipal de Informática SA - IPLANRIO
1148        "rip", // rip United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1149        "rmit", // rmit Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
1150        "rocher", // rocher Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
1151        "rocks", // rocks United TLD Holdco, LTD.
1152        "rodeo", // rodeo Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1153        "rogers", // rogers Rogers Communications Canada Inc.
1154        "room", // room Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1155        "rsvp", // rsvp Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1156        "ruhr", // ruhr regiodot GmbH &amp; Co. KG
1157        "run", // run Snow Park, LLC
1158        "rwe", // rwe RWE AG
1159        "ryukyu", // ryukyu BusinessRalliart inc.
1160        "saarland", // saarland dotSaarland GmbH
1161        "safe", // safe Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1162        "safety", // safety Safety Registry Services, LLC.
1163        "sakura", // sakura SAKURA Internet Inc.
1164        "sale", // sale United TLD Holdco, Ltd
1165        "salon", // salon Outer Orchard, LLC
1166        "samsclub", // samsclub Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
1167        "samsung", // samsung SAMSUNG SDS CO., LTD
1168        "sandvik", // sandvik Sandvik AB
1169        "sandvikcoromant", // sandvikcoromant Sandvik AB
1170        "sanofi", // sanofi Sanofi
1171        "sap", // sap SAP AG
1172        "sapo", // sapo PT Comunicacoes S.A.
1173        "sarl", // sarl Delta Orchard, LLC
1174        "sas", // sas Research IP LLC
1175        "save", // save Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1176        "saxo", // saxo Saxo Bank A/S
1177        "sbi", // sbi STATE BANK OF INDIA
1178        "sbs", // sbs SPECIAL BROADCASTING SERVICE CORPORATION
1179        "sca", // sca SVENSKA CELLULOSA AKTIEBOLAGET SCA (publ)
1180        "scb", // scb The Siam Commercial Bank Public Company Limited (&quot;SCB&quot;)
1181        "schaeffler", // schaeffler Schaeffler Technologies AG &amp; Co. KG
1182        "schmidt", // schmidt SALM S.A.S.
1183        "scholarships", // scholarships Scholarships.com, LLC
1184        "school", // school Little Galley, LLC
1185        "schule", // schule Outer Moon, LLC
1186        "schwarz", // schwarz Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH &amp; Co. KG
1187        "science", // science dot Science Limited
1188        "scjohnson", // scjohnson Johnson Shareholdings, Inc.
1189        "scor", // scor SCOR SE
1190        "scot", // scot Dot Scot Registry Limited
1191        "seat", // seat SEAT, S.A. (Sociedad Unipersonal)
1192        "secure", // secure Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1193        "security", // security XYZ.COM LLC
1194        "seek", // seek Seek Limited
1195        "select", // select iSelect Ltd
1196        "sener", // sener Sener Ingeniería y Sistemas, S.A.
1197        "services", // services Fox Castle, LLC
1198        "ses", // ses SES
1199        "seven", // seven Seven West Media Ltd
1200        "sew", // sew SEW-EURODRIVE GmbH &amp; Co KG
1201        "sex", // sex ICM Registry SX LLC
1202        "sexy", // sexy Uniregistry, Corp.
1203        "sfr", // sfr Societe Francaise du Radiotelephone - SFR
1204        "shangrila", // shangrila Shangri‐La International Hotel Management Limited
1205        "sharp", // sharp Sharp Corporation
1206        "shaw", // shaw Shaw Cablesystems G.P.
1207        "shell", // shell Shell Information Technology International Inc
1208        "shia", // shia Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1209        "shiksha", // shiksha Afilias Limited
1210        "shoes", // shoes Binky Galley, LLC
1211        "shop", // shop GMO Registry, Inc.
1212        "shopping", // shopping Over Keep, LLC
1213        "shouji", // shouji QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
1214        "show", // show Snow Beach, LLC
1215        "showtime", // showtime CBS Domains Inc.
1216        "shriram", // shriram Shriram Capital Ltd.
1217        "silk", // silk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1218        "sina", // sina Sina Corporation
1219        "singles", // singles Fern Madison, LLC
1220        "site", // site DotSite Inc.
1221        "ski", // ski STARTING DOT LIMITED
1222        "skin", // skin L&#39;Oréal
1223        "sky", // sky Sky International AG
1224        "skype", // skype Microsoft Corporation
1225        "sling", // sling Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation
1226        "smart", // smart Smart Communications, Inc. (SMART)
1227        "smile", // smile Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1228        "sncf", // sncf SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais)
1229        "soccer", // soccer Foggy Shadow, LLC
1230        "social", // social United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1231        "softbank", // softbank SoftBank Group Corp.
1232        "software", // software United TLD Holdco, Ltd
1233        "sohu", // sohu Sohu.com Limited
1234        "solar", // solar Ruby Town, LLC
1235        "solutions", // solutions Silver Cover, LLC
1236        "song", // song Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1237        "sony", // sony Sony Corporation
1238        "soy", // soy Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1239        "space", // space DotSpace Inc.
1240        "spiegel", // spiegel SPIEGEL-Verlag Rudolf Augstein GmbH &amp; Co. KG
1241        "spot", // spot Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1242        "spreadbetting", // spreadbetting DOTSPREADBETTING REGISTRY LTD
1243        "srl", // srl InterNetX Corp.
1244        "srt", // srt FCA US LLC.
1245        "stada", // stada STADA Arzneimittel AG
1246        "staples", // staples Staples, Inc.
1247        "star", // star Star India Private Limited
1248        "starhub", // starhub StarHub Limited
1249        "statebank", // statebank STATE BANK OF INDIA
1250        "statefarm", // statefarm State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company
1251        "statoil", // statoil Statoil ASA
1252        "stc", // stc Saudi Telecom Company
1253        "stcgroup", // stcgroup Saudi Telecom Company
1254        "stockholm", // stockholm Stockholms kommun
1255        "storage", // storage Self Storage Company LLC
1256        "store", // store DotStore Inc.
1257        "stream", // stream dot Stream Limited
1258        "studio", // studio United TLD Holdco Ltd.
1259        "study", // study OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
1260        "style", // style Binky Moon, LLC
1261        "sucks", // sucks Vox Populi Registry Ltd.
1262        "supplies", // supplies Atomic Fields, LLC
1263        "supply", // supply Half Falls, LLC
1264        "support", // support Grand Orchard, LLC
1265        "surf", // surf Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1266        "surgery", // surgery Tin Avenue, LLC
1267        "suzuki", // suzuki SUZUKI MOTOR CORPORATION
1268        "swatch", // swatch The Swatch Group Ltd
1269        "swiftcover", // swiftcover Swiftcover Insurance Services Limited
1270        "swiss", // swiss Swiss Confederation
1271        "sydney", // sydney State of New South Wales, Department of Premier and Cabinet
1272        "symantec", // symantec Symantec Corporation
1273        "systems", // systems Dash Cypress, LLC
1274        "tab", // tab Tabcorp Holdings Limited
1275        "taipei", // taipei Taipei City Government
1276        "talk", // talk Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1277        "taobao", // taobao Alibaba Group Holding Limited
1278        "target", // target Target Domain Holdings, LLC
1279        "tatamotors", // tatamotors Tata Motors Ltd
1280        "tatar", // tatar Limited Liability Company &quot;Coordination Center of Regional Domain of Tatarstan Republic&quot;
1281        "tattoo", // tattoo Uniregistry, Corp.
1282        "tax", // tax Storm Orchard, LLC
1283        "taxi", // taxi Pine Falls, LLC
1284        "tci", // tci Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1285        "tdk", // tdk TDK Corporation
1286        "team", // team Atomic Lake, LLC
1287        "tech", // tech Dot Tech LLC
1288        "technology", // technology Auburn Falls, LLC
1289        "tel", // tel Telnic Ltd.
1290        "telecity", // telecity TelecityGroup International Limited
1291        "telefonica", // telefonica Telefónica S.A.
1292        "temasek", // temasek Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited
1293        "tennis", // tennis Cotton Bloom, LLC
1294        "teva", // teva Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited
1295        "thd", // thd Homer TLC, Inc.
1296        "theater", // theater Blue Tigers, LLC
1297        "theatre", // theatre XYZ.COM LLC
1298        "tiaa", // tiaa Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America
1299        "tickets", // tickets Accent Media Limited
1300        "tienda", // tienda Victor Manor, LLC
1301        "tiffany", // tiffany Tiffany and Company
1302        "tips", // tips Corn Willow, LLC
1303        "tires", // tires Dog Edge, LLC
1304        "tirol", // tirol punkt Tirol GmbH
1305        "tjmaxx", // tjmaxx The TJX Companies, Inc.
1306        "tjx", // tjx The TJX Companies, Inc.
1307        "tkmaxx", // tkmaxx The TJX Companies, Inc.
1308        "tmall", // tmall Alibaba Group Holding Limited
1309        "today", // today Pearl Woods, LLC
1310        "tokyo", // tokyo GMO Registry, Inc.
1311        "tools", // tools Pioneer North, LLC
1312        "top", // top Jiangsu Bangning Science &amp; Technology Co.,Ltd.
1313        "toray", // toray Toray Industries, Inc.
1314        "toshiba", // toshiba TOSHIBA Corporation
1315        "total", // total Total SA
1316        "tours", // tours Sugar Station, LLC
1317        "town", // town Koko Moon, LLC
1318        "toyota", // toyota TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
1319        "toys", // toys Pioneer Orchard, LLC
1320        "trade", // trade Elite Registry Limited
1321        "trading", // trading DOTTRADING REGISTRY LTD
1322        "training", // training Wild Willow, LLC
1323        "travel", // travel Tralliance Registry Management Company, LLC.
1324        "travelchannel", // travelchannel Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
1325        "travelers", // travelers Travelers TLD, LLC
1326        "travelersinsurance", // travelersinsurance Travelers TLD, LLC
1327        "trust", // trust Artemis Internet Inc
1328        "trv", // trv Travelers TLD, LLC
1329        "tube", // tube Latin American Telecom LLC
1330        "tui", // tui TUI AG
1331        "tunes", // tunes Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1332        "tushu", // tushu Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1333        "tvs", // tvs T V SUNDRAM IYENGAR  &amp; SONS PRIVATE LIMITED
1334        "ubank", // ubank National Australia Bank Limited
1335        "ubs", // ubs UBS AG
1336        "uconnect", // uconnect FCA US LLC.
1337        "unicom", // unicom China United Network Communications Corporation Limited
1338        "university", // university Little Station, LLC
1339        "uno", // uno Dot Latin LLC
1340        "uol", // uol UBN INTERNET LTDA.
1341        "ups", // ups UPS Market Driver, Inc.
1342        "vacations", // vacations Atomic Tigers, LLC
1343        "vana", // vana Lifestyle Domain Holdings, Inc.
1344        "vanguard", // vanguard The Vanguard Group, Inc.
1345        "vegas", // vegas Dot Vegas, Inc.
1346        "ventures", // ventures Binky Lake, LLC
1347        "verisign", // verisign VeriSign, Inc.
1348        "versicherung", // versicherung dotversicherung-registry GmbH
1349        "vet", // vet United TLD Holdco, Ltd
1350        "viajes", // viajes Black Madison, LLC
1351        "video", // video United TLD Holdco, Ltd
1352        "vig", // vig VIENNA INSURANCE GROUP AG Wiener Versicherung Gruppe
1353        "viking", // viking Viking River Cruises (Bermuda) Ltd.
1354        "villas", // villas New Sky, LLC
1355        "vin", // vin Holly Shadow, LLC
1356        "vip", // vip Minds + Machines Group Limited
1357        "virgin", // virgin Virgin Enterprises Limited
1358        "visa", // visa Visa Worldwide Pte. Limited
1359        "vision", // vision Koko Station, LLC
1360        "vista", // vista Vistaprint Limited
1361        "vistaprint", // vistaprint Vistaprint Limited
1362        "viva", // viva Saudi Telecom Company
1363        "vivo", // vivo Telefonica Brasil S.A.
1364        "vlaanderen", // vlaanderen DNS.be vzw
1365        "vodka", // vodka Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1366        "volkswagen", // volkswagen Volkswagen Group of America Inc.
1367        "volvo", // volvo Volvo Holding Sverige Aktiebolag
1368        "vote", // vote Monolith Registry LLC
1369        "voting", // voting Valuetainment Corp.
1370        "voto", // voto Monolith Registry LLC
1371        "voyage", // voyage Ruby House, LLC
1372        "vuelos", // vuelos Travel Reservations SRL
1373        "wales", // wales Nominet UK
1374        "walmart", // walmart Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
1375        "walter", // walter Sandvik AB
1376        "wang", // wang Zodiac Registry Limited
1377        "wanggou", // wanggou Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1378        "warman", // warman Weir Group IP Limited
1379        "watch", // watch Sand Shadow, LLC
1380        "watches", // watches Richemont DNS Inc.
1381        "weather", // weather The Weather Channel, LLC
1382        "weatherchannel", // weatherchannel The Weather Channel, LLC
1383        "webcam", // webcam dot Webcam Limited
1384        "weber", // weber Saint-Gobain Weber SA
1385        "website", // website DotWebsite Inc.
1386        "wed", // wed Atgron, Inc.
1387        "wedding", // wedding Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1388        "weibo", // weibo Sina Corporation
1389        "weir", // weir Weir Group IP Limited
1390        "whoswho", // whoswho Who&#39;s Who Registry
1391        "wien", // wien punkt.wien GmbH
1392        "wiki", // wiki Top Level Design, LLC
1393        "williamhill", // williamhill William Hill Organization Limited
1394        "win", // win First Registry Limited
1395        "windows", // windows Microsoft Corporation
1396        "wine", // wine June Station, LLC
1397        "winners", // winners The TJX Companies, Inc.
1398        "wme", // wme William Morris Endeavor Entertainment, LLC
1399        "wolterskluwer", // wolterskluwer Wolters Kluwer N.V.
1400        "woodside", // woodside Woodside Petroleum Limited
1401        "work", // work Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1402        "works", // works Little Dynamite, LLC
1403        "world", // world Bitter Fields, LLC
1404        "wow", // wow Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1405        "wtc", // wtc World Trade Centers Association, Inc.
1406        "wtf", // wtf Hidden Way, LLC
1407        "xbox", // xbox Microsoft Corporation
1408        "xerox", // xerox Xerox DNHC LLC
1409        "xfinity", // xfinity Comcast IP Holdings I, LLC
1410        "xihuan", // xihuan QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
1411        "xin", // xin Elegant Leader Limited
1412        "xn--11b4c3d", // कॉम VeriSign Sarl
1413        "xn--1ck2e1b", // セール Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1414        "xn--1qqw23a", // 佛山 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd.
1415        "xn--30rr7y", // 慈善 Excellent First Limited
1416        "xn--3bst00m", // 集团 Eagle Horizon Limited
1417        "xn--3ds443g", // 在线 TLD REGISTRY LIMITED
1418        "xn--3oq18vl8pn36a", // 大众汽车 Volkswagen (China) Investment Co., Ltd.
1419        "xn--3pxu8k", // 点看 VeriSign Sarl
1420        "xn--42c2d9a", // คอม VeriSign Sarl
1421        "xn--45q11c", // 八卦 Zodiac Scorpio Limited
1422        "xn--4gbrim", // موقع Suhub Electronic Establishment
1423        "xn--55qw42g", // 公益 China Organizational Name Administration Center
1424        "xn--55qx5d", // 公司 Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China Internet Network Information Center)
1425        "xn--5su34j936bgsg", // 香格里拉 Shangri‐La International Hotel Management Limited
1426        "xn--5tzm5g", // 网站 Global Website TLD Asia Limited
1427        "xn--6frz82g", // 移动 Afilias Limited
1428        "xn--6qq986b3xl", // 我爱你 Tycoon Treasure Limited
1429        "xn--80adxhks", // москва Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID)
1430        "xn--80aqecdr1a", // католик Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)
1431        "xn--80asehdb", // онлайн CORE Association
1432        "xn--80aswg", // сайт CORE Association
1433        "xn--8y0a063a", // 联通 China United Network Communications Corporation Limited
1434        "xn--90ae", // бг Imena.BG Plc (NAMES.BG Plc)
1435        "xn--9dbq2a", // קום VeriSign Sarl
1436        "xn--9et52u", // 时尚 RISE VICTORY LIMITED
1437        "xn--9krt00a", // 微博 Sina Corporation
1438        "xn--b4w605ferd", // 淡马锡 Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited
1439        "xn--bck1b9a5dre4c", // ファッション Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1440        "xn--c1avg", // орг Public Interest Registry
1441        "xn--c2br7g", // नेट VeriSign Sarl
1442        "xn--cck2b3b", // ストア Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1443        "xn--cg4bki", // 삼성 SAMSUNG SDS CO., LTD
1444        "xn--czr694b", // 商标 HU YI GLOBAL INFORMATION RESOURCES(HOLDING) COMPANY.HONGKONG LIMITED
1445        "xn--czrs0t", // 商店 Wild Island, LLC
1446        "xn--czru2d", // 商城 Zodiac Aquarius Limited
1447        "xn--d1acj3b", // дети The Foundation for Network Initiatives “The Smart Internet”
1448        "xn--eckvdtc9d", // ポイント Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1449        "xn--efvy88h", // 新闻 Xinhua News Agency Guangdong Branch 新华通讯社广东分社
1450        "xn--estv75g", // 工行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited
1451        "xn--fct429k", // 家電 Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1452        "xn--fhbei", // كوم VeriSign Sarl
1453        "xn--fiq228c5hs", // 中文网 TLD REGISTRY LIMITED
1454        "xn--fiq64b", // 中信 CITIC Group Corporation
1455        "xn--fjq720a", // 娱乐 Will Bloom, LLC
1456        "xn--flw351e", // 谷歌 Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1457        "xn--fzys8d69uvgm", // 電訊盈科 PCCW Enterprises Limited
1458        "xn--g2xx48c", // 购物 Minds + Machines Group Limited
1459        "xn--gckr3f0f", // クラウド Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1460        "xn--gk3at1e", // 通販 Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1461        "xn--hxt814e", // 网店 Zodiac Libra Limited
1462        "xn--i1b6b1a6a2e", // संगठन Public Interest Registry
1463        "xn--imr513n", // 餐厅 HU YI GLOBAL INFORMATION RESOURCES (HOLDING) COMPANY. HONGKONG LIMITED
1464        "xn--io0a7i", // 网络 Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China Internet Network Information Center)
1465        "xn--j1aef", // ком VeriSign Sarl
1466        "xn--jlq61u9w7b", // 诺基亚 Nokia Corporation
1467        "xn--jvr189m", // 食品 Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1468        "xn--kcrx77d1x4a", // 飞利浦 Koninklijke Philips N.V.
1469        "xn--kpu716f", // 手表 Richemont DNS Inc.
1470        "xn--kput3i", // 手机 Beijing RITT-Net Technology Development Co., Ltd
1471        "xn--mgba3a3ejt", // ارامكو Aramco Services Company
1472        "xn--mgba7c0bbn0a", // العليان Crescent Holding GmbH
1473        "xn--mgbab2bd", // بازار CORE Association
1474        "xn--mgbb9fbpob", // موبايلي GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.
1475        "xn--mgbca7dzdo", // ابوظبي Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre
1476        "xn--mgbi4ecexp", // كاثوليك Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)
1477        "xn--mgbt3dhd", // همراه Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.
1478        "xn--mk1bu44c", // 닷컴 VeriSign Sarl
1479        "xn--mxtq1m", // 政府 Net-Chinese Co., Ltd.
1480        "xn--ngbc5azd", // شبكة International Domain Registry Pty. Ltd.
1481        "xn--ngbe9e0a", // بيتك Kuwait Finance House
1482        "xn--nqv7f", // 机构 Public Interest Registry
1483        "xn--nqv7fs00ema", // 组织机构 Public Interest Registry
1484        "xn--nyqy26a", // 健康 Stable Tone Limited
1485        "xn--p1acf", // рус Rusnames Limited
1486        "xn--pbt977c", // 珠宝 Richemont DNS Inc.
1487        "xn--pssy2u", // 大拿 VeriSign Sarl
1488        "xn--q9jyb4c", // みんな Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1489        "xn--qcka1pmc", // グーグル Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1490        "xn--rhqv96g", // 世界 Stable Tone Limited
1491        "xn--rovu88b", // 書籍 Amazon EU S.à r.l.
1492        "xn--ses554g", // 网址 KNET Co., Ltd
1493        "xn--t60b56a", // 닷넷 VeriSign Sarl
1494        "xn--tckwe", // コム VeriSign Sarl
1495        "xn--tiq49xqyj", // 天主教 Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)
1496        "xn--unup4y", // 游戏 Spring Fields, LLC
1497        "xn--vermgensberater-ctb", // VERMöGENSBERATER Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
1498        "xn--vermgensberatung-pwb", // VERMöGENSBERATUNG Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
1499        "xn--vhquv", // 企业 Dash McCook, LLC
1500        "xn--vuq861b", // 信息 Beijing Tele-info Network Technology Co., Ltd.
1501        "xn--w4r85el8fhu5dnra", // 嘉里大酒店 Kerry Trading Co. Limited
1502        "xn--w4rs40l", // 嘉里 Kerry Trading Co. Limited
1503        "xn--xhq521b", // 广东 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd.
1504        "xn--zfr164b", // 政务 China Organizational Name Administration Center
1505        "xperia", // xperia Sony Mobile Communications AB
1506        "xxx", // xxx ICM Registry LLC
1507        "xyz", // xyz XYZ.COM LLC
1508        "yachts", // yachts DERYachts, LLC
1509        "yahoo", // yahoo Yahoo! Domain Services Inc.
1510        "yamaxun", // yamaxun Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1511        "yandex", // yandex YANDEX, LLC
1512        "yodobashi", // yodobashi YODOBASHI CAMERA CO.,LTD.
1513        "yoga", // yoga Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1514        "yokohama", // yokohama GMO Registry, Inc.
1515        "you", // you Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1516        "youtube", // youtube Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1517        "yun", // yun QIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.
1518        "zappos", // zappos Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1519        "zara", // zara Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (INDITEX, S.A.)
1520        "zero", // zero Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1521        "zip", // zip Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1522        "zippo", // zippo Zadco Company
1523        "zone", // zone Outer Falls, LLC
1524        "zuerich", // zuerich Kanton Zürich (Canton of Zurich)
1525};
1526
1527    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1528    private static final String[] COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS = new String[] {
1529        "ac",                 // Ascension Island
1530        "ad",                 // Andorra
1531        "ae",                 // United Arab Emirates
1532        "af",                 // Afghanistan
1533        "ag",                 // Antigua and Barbuda
1534        "ai",                 // Anguilla
1535        "al",                 // Albania
1536        "am",                 // Armenia
1537//        "an",                 // Netherlands Antilles (retired)
1538        "ao",                 // Angola
1539        "aq",                 // Antarctica
1540        "ar",                 // Argentina
1541        "as",                 // American Samoa
1542        "at",                 // Austria
1543        "au",                 // Australia (includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands)
1544        "aw",                 // Aruba
1545        "ax",                 // Åland
1546        "az",                 // Azerbaijan
1547        "ba",                 // Bosnia and Herzegovina
1548        "bb",                 // Barbados
1549        "bd",                 // Bangladesh
1550        "be",                 // Belgium
1551        "bf",                 // Burkina Faso
1552        "bg",                 // Bulgaria
1553        "bh",                 // Bahrain
1554        "bi",                 // Burundi
1555        "bj",                 // Benin
1556        "bm",                 // Bermuda
1557        "bn",                 // Brunei Darussalam
1558        "bo",                 // Bolivia
1559        "br",                 // Brazil
1560        "bs",                 // Bahamas
1561        "bt",                 // Bhutan
1562        "bv",                 // Bouvet Island
1563        "bw",                 // Botswana
1564        "by",                 // Belarus
1565        "bz",                 // Belize
1566        "ca",                 // Canada
1567        "cc",                 // Cocos (Keeling) Islands
1568        "cd",                 // Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire)
1569        "cf",                 // Central African Republic
1570        "cg",                 // Republic of the Congo
1571        "ch",                 // Switzerland
1572        "ci",                 // Côte d'Ivoire
1573        "ck",                 // Cook Islands
1574        "cl",                 // Chile
1575        "cm",                 // Cameroon
1576        "cn",                 // China, mainland
1577        "co",                 // Colombia
1578        "cr",                 // Costa Rica
1579        "cu",                 // Cuba
1580        "cv",                 // Cape Verde
1581        "cw",                 // Curaçao
1582        "cx",                 // Christmas Island
1583        "cy",                 // Cyprus
1584        "cz",                 // Czech Republic
1585        "de",                 // Germany
1586        "dj",                 // Djibouti
1587        "dk",                 // Denmark
1588        "dm",                 // Dominica
1589        "do",                 // Dominican Republic
1590        "dz",                 // Algeria
1591        "ec",                 // Ecuador
1592        "ee",                 // Estonia
1593        "eg",                 // Egypt
1594        "er",                 // Eritrea
1595        "es",                 // Spain
1596        "et",                 // Ethiopia
1597        "eu",                 // European Union
1598        "fi",                 // Finland
1599        "fj",                 // Fiji
1600        "fk",                 // Falkland Islands
1601        "fm",                 // Federated States of Micronesia
1602        "fo",                 // Faroe Islands
1603        "fr",                 // France
1604        "ga",                 // Gabon
1605        "gb",                 // Great Britain (United Kingdom)
1606        "gd",                 // Grenada
1607        "ge",                 // Georgia
1608        "gf",                 // French Guiana
1609        "gg",                 // Guernsey
1610        "gh",                 // Ghana
1611        "gi",                 // Gibraltar
1612        "gl",                 // Greenland
1613        "gm",                 // The Gambia
1614        "gn",                 // Guinea
1615        "gp",                 // Guadeloupe
1616        "gq",                 // Equatorial Guinea
1617        "gr",                 // Greece
1618        "gs",                 // South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
1619        "gt",                 // Guatemala
1620        "gu",                 // Guam
1621        "gw",                 // Guinea-Bissau
1622        "gy",                 // Guyana
1623        "hk",                 // Hong Kong
1624        "hm",                 // Heard Island and McDonald Islands
1625        "hn",                 // Honduras
1626        "hr",                 // Croatia (Hrvatska)
1627        "ht",                 // Haiti
1628        "hu",                 // Hungary
1629        "id",                 // Indonesia
1630        "ie",                 // Ireland (Éire)
1631        "il",                 // Israel
1632        "im",                 // Isle of Man
1633        "in",                 // India
1634        "io",                 // British Indian Ocean Territory
1635        "iq",                 // Iraq
1636        "ir",                 // Iran
1637        "is",                 // Iceland
1638        "it",                 // Italy
1639        "je",                 // Jersey
1640        "jm",                 // Jamaica
1641        "jo",                 // Jordan
1642        "jp",                 // Japan
1643        "ke",                 // Kenya
1644        "kg",                 // Kyrgyzstan
1645        "kh",                 // Cambodia (Khmer)
1646        "ki",                 // Kiribati
1647        "km",                 // Comoros
1648        "kn",                 // Saint Kitts and Nevis
1649        "kp",                 // North Korea
1650        "kr",                 // South Korea
1651        "kw",                 // Kuwait
1652        "ky",                 // Cayman Islands
1653        "kz",                 // Kazakhstan
1654        "la",                 // Laos (currently being marketed as the official domain for Los Angeles)
1655        "lb",                 // Lebanon
1656        "lc",                 // Saint Lucia
1657        "li",                 // Liechtenstein
1658        "lk",                 // Sri Lanka
1659        "lr",                 // Liberia
1660        "ls",                 // Lesotho
1661        "lt",                 // Lithuania
1662        "lu",                 // Luxembourg
1663        "lv",                 // Latvia
1664        "ly",                 // Libya
1665        "ma",                 // Morocco
1666        "mc",                 // Monaco
1667        "md",                 // Moldova
1668        "me",                 // Montenegro
1669        "mg",                 // Madagascar
1670        "mh",                 // Marshall Islands
1671        "mk",                 // Republic of Macedonia
1672        "ml",                 // Mali
1673        "mm",                 // Myanmar
1674        "mn",                 // Mongolia
1675        "mo",                 // Macau
1676        "mp",                 // Northern Mariana Islands
1677        "mq",                 // Martinique
1678        "mr",                 // Mauritania
1679        "ms",                 // Montserrat
1680        "mt",                 // Malta
1681        "mu",                 // Mauritius
1682        "mv",                 // Maldives
1683        "mw",                 // Malawi
1684        "mx",                 // Mexico
1685        "my",                 // Malaysia
1686        "mz",                 // Mozambique
1687        "na",                 // Namibia
1688        "nc",                 // New Caledonia
1689        "ne",                 // Niger
1690        "nf",                 // Norfolk Island
1691        "ng",                 // Nigeria
1692        "ni",                 // Nicaragua
1693        "nl",                 // Netherlands
1694        "no",                 // Norway
1695        "np",                 // Nepal
1696        "nr",                 // Nauru
1697        "nu",                 // Niue
1698        "nz",                 // New Zealand
1699        "om",                 // Oman
1700        "pa",                 // Panama
1701        "pe",                 // Peru
1702        "pf",                 // French Polynesia With Clipperton Island
1703        "pg",                 // Papua New Guinea
1704        "ph",                 // Philippines
1705        "pk",                 // Pakistan
1706        "pl",                 // Poland
1707        "pm",                 // Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
1708        "pn",                 // Pitcairn Islands
1709        "pr",                 // Puerto Rico
1710        "ps",                 // Palestinian territories (PA-controlled West Bank and Gaza Strip)
1711        "pt",                 // Portugal
1712        "pw",                 // Palau
1713        "py",                 // Paraguay
1714        "qa",                 // Qatar
1715        "re",                 // Réunion
1716        "ro",                 // Romania
1717        "rs",                 // Serbia
1718        "ru",                 // Russia
1719        "rw",                 // Rwanda
1720        "sa",                 // Saudi Arabia
1721        "sb",                 // Solomon Islands
1722        "sc",                 // Seychelles
1723        "sd",                 // Sudan
1724        "se",                 // Sweden
1725        "sg",                 // Singapore
1726        "sh",                 // Saint Helena
1727        "si",                 // Slovenia
1728        "sj",                 // Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no)
1729        "sk",                 // Slovakia
1730        "sl",                 // Sierra Leone
1731        "sm",                 // San Marino
1732        "sn",                 // Senegal
1733        "so",                 // Somalia
1734        "sr",                 // Suriname
1735        "st",                 // São Tomé and Príncipe
1736        "su",                 // Soviet Union (deprecated)
1737        "sv",                 // El Salvador
1738        "sx",                 // Sint Maarten
1739        "sy",                 // Syria
1740        "sz",                 // Swaziland
1741        "tc",                 // Turks and Caicos Islands
1742        "td",                 // Chad
1743        "tf",                 // French Southern and Antarctic Lands
1744        "tg",                 // Togo
1745        "th",                 // Thailand
1746        "tj",                 // Tajikistan
1747        "tk",                 // Tokelau
1748        "tl",                 // East Timor (deprecated old code)
1749        "tm",                 // Turkmenistan
1750        "tn",                 // Tunisia
1751        "to",                 // Tonga
1752//        "tp",                 // East Timor (Retired)
1753        "tr",                 // Turkey
1754        "tt",                 // Trinidad and Tobago
1755        "tv",                 // Tuvalu
1756        "tw",                 // Taiwan, Republic of China
1757        "tz",                 // Tanzania
1758        "ua",                 // Ukraine
1759        "ug",                 // Uganda
1760        "uk",                 // United Kingdom
1761        "us",                 // United States of America
1762        "uy",                 // Uruguay
1763        "uz",                 // Uzbekistan
1764        "va",                 // Vatican City State
1765        "vc",                 // Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1766        "ve",                 // Venezuela
1767        "vg",                 // British Virgin Islands
1768        "vi",                 // U.S. Virgin Islands
1769        "vn",                 // Vietnam
1770        "vu",                 // Vanuatu
1771        "wf",                 // Wallis and Futuna
1772        "ws",                 // Samoa (formerly Western Samoa)
1773        "xn--3e0b707e", // 한국 KISA (Korea Internet &amp; Security Agency)
1774        "xn--45brj9c", // ভারত National Internet Exchange of India
1775        "xn--54b7fta0cc", // বাংলা Posts and Telecommunications Division
1776        "xn--80ao21a", // қаз Association of IT Companies of Kazakhstan
1777        "xn--90a3ac", // срб Serbian National Internet Domain Registry (RNIDS)
1778        "xn--90ais", // ??? Reliable Software Inc.
1779        "xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd", // சிங்கப்பூர் Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd
1780        "xn--d1alf", // мкд Macedonian Academic Research Network Skopje
1781        "xn--e1a4c", // ею EURid vzw/asbl
1782        "xn--fiqs8s", // 中国 China Internet Network Information Center
1783        "xn--fiqz9s", // 中國 China Internet Network Information Center
1784        "xn--fpcrj9c3d", // భారత్ National Internet Exchange of India
1785        "xn--fzc2c9e2c", // ලංකා LK Domain Registry
1786        "xn--gecrj9c", // ભારત National Internet Exchange of India
1787        "xn--h2brj9c", // भारत National Internet Exchange of India
1788        "xn--j1amh", // укр Ukrainian Network Information Centre (UANIC), Inc.
1789        "xn--j6w193g", // 香港 Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Ltd.
1790        "xn--kprw13d", // 台湾 Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC)
1791        "xn--kpry57d", // 台灣 Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC)
1792        "xn--l1acc", // мон Datacom Co.,Ltd
1793        "xn--lgbbat1ad8j", // الجزائر CERIST
1794        "xn--mgb9awbf", // عمان Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA)
1795        "xn--mgba3a4f16a", // ایران Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM)
1796        "xn--mgbaam7a8h", // امارات Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA)
1797        "xn--mgbayh7gpa", // الاردن National Information Technology Center (NITC)
1798        "xn--mgbbh1a71e", // بھارت National Internet Exchange of India
1799        "xn--mgbc0a9azcg", // المغرب Agence Nationale de Réglementation des Télécommunications (ANRT)
1800        "xn--mgberp4a5d4ar", // السعودية Communications and Information Technology Commission
1801        "xn--mgbpl2fh", // ????? Sudan Internet Society
1802        "xn--mgbtx2b", // عراق Communications and Media Commission (CMC)
1803        "xn--mgbx4cd0ab", // مليسيا MYNIC Berhad
1804        "xn--mix891f", // 澳門 Bureau of Telecommunications Regulation (DSRT)
1805        "xn--node", // გე Information Technologies Development Center (ITDC)
1806        "xn--o3cw4h", // ไทย Thai Network Information Center Foundation
1807        "xn--ogbpf8fl", // سورية National Agency for Network Services (NANS)
1808        "xn--p1ai", // рф Coordination Center for TLD RU
1809        "xn--pgbs0dh", // تونس Agence Tunisienne d&#39;Internet
1810        "xn--qxam", // ελ ICS-FORTH GR
1811        "xn--s9brj9c", // ਭਾਰਤ National Internet Exchange of India
1812        "xn--wgbh1c", // مصر National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority - NTRA
1813        "xn--wgbl6a", // قطر Communications Regulatory Authority
1814        "xn--xkc2al3hye2a", // இலங்கை LK Domain Registry
1815        "xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h", // இந்தியா National Internet Exchange of India
1816        "xn--y9a3aq", // ??? Internet Society
1817        "xn--yfro4i67o", // 新加坡 Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd
1818        "xn--ygbi2ammx", // فلسطين Ministry of Telecom &amp; Information Technology (MTIT)
1819        "ye",                 // Yemen
1820        "yt",                 // Mayotte
1821        "za",                 // South Africa
1822        "zm",                 // Zambia
1823        "zw",                 // Zimbabwe
1824    };
1825
1826    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1827    private static final String[] LOCAL_TLDS = new String[] {
1828       "localdomain",         // Also widely used as localhost.localdomain
1829       "localhost",           // RFC2606 defined
1830    };
1831
1832    // Additional arrays to supplement or override the built in ones.
1833    // The PLUS arrays are valid keys, the MINUS arrays are invalid keys
1834
1835    /*
1836     * This field is used to detect whether the getInstance has been called.
1837     * After this, the method updateTLDOverride is not allowed to be called.
1838     * This field does not need to be volatile since it is only accessed from
1839     * synchronized methods. 
1840     */
1841    private static boolean inUse = false;
1842
1843    /*
1844     * These arrays are mutable, but they don't need to be volatile.
1845     * They can only be updated by the updateTLDOverride method, and any readers must get an instance
1846     * using the getInstance methods which are all (now) synchronised.
1847     */
1848    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1849    private static volatile String[] countryCodeTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1850
1851    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1852    private static volatile String[] genericTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1853
1854    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1855    private static volatile String[] countryCodeTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1856
1857    // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1858    private static volatile String[] genericTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1859
1860    /**
1861     * enum used by {@link DomainValidator#updateTLDOverride(ArrayType, String[])}
1862     * to determine which override array to update / fetch
1863     * @since 1.5.0
1864     * @since 1.5.1 made public and added read-only array references
1865     */
1866    public enum ArrayType {
1867        /** Update (or get a copy of) the GENERIC_TLDS_PLUS table containing additonal generic TLDs */
1868        GENERIC_PLUS,
1869        /** Update (or get a copy of) the GENERIC_TLDS_MINUS table containing deleted generic TLDs */
1870        GENERIC_MINUS,
1871        /** Update (or get a copy of) the COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_PLUS table containing additonal country code TLDs */
1872        COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS,
1873        /** Update (or get a copy of) the COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_MINUS table containing deleted country code TLDs */
1874        COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS,
1875        /** Get a copy of the generic TLDS table */
1876        GENERIC_RO,
1877        /** Get a copy of the country code table */
1878        COUNTRY_CODE_RO,
1879        /** Get a copy of the infrastructure table */
1880        INFRASTRUCTURE_RO,
1881        /** Get a copy of the local table */
1882        LOCAL_RO
1883        ;
1884    };
1885
1886    // For use by unit test code only
1887    static synchronized void clearTLDOverrides() {
1888        inUse = false;
1889        countryCodeTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1890        countryCodeTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1891        genericTLDsPlus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1892        genericTLDsMinus = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1893    }
1894    /**
1895     * Update one of the TLD override arrays.
1896     * This must only be done at program startup, before any instances are accessed using getInstance.
1897     * <p>
1898     * For example:
1899     * <p>
1900     * {@code DomainValidator.updateTLDOverride(ArrayType.GENERIC_PLUS, new String[]{"apache"})}
1901     * <p>
1902     * To clear an override array, provide an empty array.
1903     *
1904     * @param table the table to update, see {@link DomainValidator.ArrayType}
1905     * Must be one of the following
1906     * <ul>
1907     * <li>COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS</li>
1908     * <li>COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS</li>
1909     * <li>GENERIC_MINUS</li>
1910     * <li>GENERIC_PLUS</li>
1911     * </ul>
1912     * @param tlds the array of TLDs, must not be null
1913     * @throws IllegalStateException if the method is called after getInstance
1914     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if one of the read-only tables is requested
1915     * @since 1.5.0
1916     */
1917    public static synchronized void updateTLDOverride(ArrayType table, String [] tlds) {
1918        if (inUse) {
1919            throw new IllegalStateException("Can only invoke this method before calling getInstance");
1920        }
1921        String [] copy = new String[tlds.length];
1922        // Comparisons are always done with lower-case entries
1923        for (int i = 0; i < tlds.length; i++) {
1924            copy[i] = tlds[i].toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
1925        }
1926        Arrays.sort(copy);
1927        switch(table) {
1928        case COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS:
1929            countryCodeTLDsMinus = copy;
1930            break;
1931        case COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS:
1932            countryCodeTLDsPlus = copy;
1933            break;
1934        case GENERIC_MINUS:
1935            genericTLDsMinus = copy;
1936            break;
1937        case GENERIC_PLUS:
1938            genericTLDsPlus = copy;
1939            break;
1940        case COUNTRY_CODE_RO:
1941        case GENERIC_RO:
1942        case INFRASTRUCTURE_RO:
1943        case LOCAL_RO:
1944            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot update the table: " + table);
1945        default:
1946            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unexpected enum value: " + table);
1947        }
1948    }
1949
1950    /**
1951     * Get a copy of the internal array.
1952     * @param table the array type (any of the enum values)
1953     * @return a copy of the array
1954     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the table type is unexpected (should not happen)
1955     * @since 1.5.1
1956     */
1957    public static String [] getTLDEntries(ArrayType table) {
1958        final String array[];
1959        switch(table) {
1960        case COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS:
1961            array = countryCodeTLDsMinus;
1962            break;
1963        case COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS:
1964            array = countryCodeTLDsPlus;
1965            break;
1966        case GENERIC_MINUS:
1967            array = genericTLDsMinus;
1968            break;
1969        case GENERIC_PLUS:
1970            array = genericTLDsPlus;
1971            break;
1972        case GENERIC_RO:
1973            array = GENERIC_TLDS;
1974            break;
1975        case COUNTRY_CODE_RO:
1976            array = COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS;
1977            break;
1978        case INFRASTRUCTURE_RO:
1979            array = INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS;
1980            break;
1981        case LOCAL_RO:
1982            array = LOCAL_TLDS;
1983            break;
1984        default:
1985            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unexpected enum value: " + table);
1986        }
1987        return Arrays.copyOf(array, array.length); // clone the array
1988    }
1989
1990    /**
1991     * Converts potentially Unicode input to punycode.
1992     * If conversion fails, returns the original input.
1993     * 
1994     * @param input the string to convert, not null
1995     * @return converted input, or original input if conversion fails
1996     */
1997    // Needed by UrlValidator
1998    static String unicodeToASCII(String input) {
1999        if (isOnlyASCII(input)) { // skip possibly expensive processing
2000            return input;
2001        }
2002        try {
2003            final String ascii = IDN.toASCII(input);
2004            if (IDNBUGHOLDER.IDN_TOASCII_PRESERVES_TRAILING_DOTS) {
2005                return ascii;
2006            }
2007            final int length = input.length();
2008            if (length == 0) {// check there is a last character
2009                return input;
2010            }
2011            // RFC3490 3.1. 1)
2012            //            Whenever dots are used as label separators, the following
2013            //            characters MUST be recognized as dots: U+002E (full stop), U+3002
2014            //            (ideographic full stop), U+FF0E (fullwidth full stop), U+FF61
2015            //            (halfwidth ideographic full stop).
2016            char lastChar = input.charAt(length-1);// fetch original last char
2017            switch(lastChar) {
2018                case '\u002E': // "." full stop
2019                case '\u3002': // ideographic full stop
2020                case '\uFF0E': // fullwidth full stop
2021                case '\uFF61': // halfwidth ideographic full stop
2022                    return ascii + "."; // restore the missing stop
2023                default:
2024                    return ascii;
2025            }
2026        } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) { // input is not valid
2027            return input;
2028        }
2029    }
2030
2031    private static class IDNBUGHOLDER {
2032        private static boolean keepsTrailingDot() {
2033            final String input = "a."; // must be a valid name
2034            return input.equals(IDN.toASCII(input));
2035        }
2036        private static final boolean IDN_TOASCII_PRESERVES_TRAILING_DOTS = keepsTrailingDot();
2037    }
2038
2039    /*
2040     * Check if input contains only ASCII
2041     * Treats null as all ASCII
2042     */
2043    private static boolean isOnlyASCII(String input) {
2044        if (input == null) {
2045            return true;
2046        }
2047        for(int i=0; i < input.length(); i++) {
2048            if (input.charAt(i) > 0x7F) { // CHECKSTYLE IGNORE MagicNumber
2049                return false;
2050            }
2051        }
2052        return true;
2053    }
2054
2055    /**
2056     * Check if a sorted array contains the specified key
2057     *
2058     * @param sortedArray the array to search
2059     * @param key the key to find
2060     * @return {@code true} if the array contains the key
2061     */
2062    private static boolean arrayContains(String[] sortedArray, String key) {
2063        return Arrays.binarySearch(sortedArray, key) >= 0;
2064    }
2065}