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1   /*
2    * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
3    * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
4    * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
5    * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
6    * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
7    * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
8    *
9    *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
10   *
11   * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
12   * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
13   * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
14   * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
15   * limitations under the License.
16   */
17  package org.apache.commons.validator.routines;
18  
19  import java.io.Serializable;
20  import java.net.IDN;
21  import java.util.Arrays;
22  import java.util.Locale;
23  
24  /**
25   * <p><b>Domain name</b> validation routines.</p>
26   *
27   * <p>
28   * This validator provides methods for validating Internet domain names
29   * and top-level domains.
30   * </p>
31   *
32   * <p>Domain names are evaluated according
33   * to the standards <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1034.txt">RFC1034</a>,
34   * section 3, and <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1123.txt">RFC1123</a>,
35   * section 2.1. No accommodation is provided for the specialized needs of
36   * other applications; if the domain name has been URL-encoded, for example,
37   * validation will fail even though the equivalent plaintext version of the
38   * same name would have passed.
39   * </p>
40   *
41   * <p>
42   * Validation is also provided for top-level domains (TLDs) as defined and
43   * maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA):
44   * </p>
45   *
46   *   <ul>
47   *     <li>{@link #isValidInfrastructureTld} - validates infrastructure TLDs
48   *         (<code>.arpa</code>, etc.)</li>
49   *     <li>{@link #isValidGenericTld} - validates generic TLDs
50   *         (<code>.com, .org</code>, etc.)</li>
51   *     <li>{@link #isValidCountryCodeTld} - validates country code TLDs
52   *         (<code>.us, .uk, .cn</code>, etc.)</li>
53   *   </ul>
54   *
55   * <p>
56   * (<b>NOTE</b>: This class does not provide IP address lookup for domain names or
57   * methods to ensure that a given domain name matches a specific IP; see
58   * {@link java.net.InetAddress} for that functionality.)
59   * </p>
60   *
61   * @version $Revision: 1713225 $
62   * @since Validator 1.4
63   */
64  public class DomainValidator implements Serializable {
65  
66      private static final String[] EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY = new String[0];
67  
68      private static final long serialVersionUID = -4407125112880174009L;
69  
70      // Regular expression strings for hostnames (derived from RFC2396 and RFC 1123)
71  
72      // RFC2396: domainlabel   = alphanum | alphanum *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
73      // Max 63 characters
74      private static final String DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX = "\\p{Alnum}(?>[\\p{Alnum}-]{0,61}\\p{Alnum})?";
75  
76      // RFC2396 toplabel = alpha | alpha *( alphanum | "-" ) alphanum
77      // Max 63 characters
78      private static final String TOP_LABEL_REGEX = "\\p{Alpha}(?>[\\p{Alnum}-]{0,61}\\p{Alnum})?";
79  
80      // RFC2396 hostname = *( domainlabel "." ) toplabel [ "." ]
81      // Note that the regex currently requires both a domain label and a top level label, whereas
82      // the RFC does not. This is because the regex is used to detect if a TLD is present.
83      // If the match fails, input is checked against DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX (hostnameRegex)
84      // RFC1123 sec 2.1 allows hostnames to start with a digit
85      private static final String DOMAIN_NAME_REGEX =
86              "^(?:" + DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX + "\\.)+" + "(" + TOP_LABEL_REGEX + ")\\.?$";
87  
88      private final boolean allowLocal;
89  
90      /**
91       * Singleton instance of this validator, which
92       *  doesn't consider local addresses as valid.
93       */
94      private static final DomainValidator DOMAIN_VALIDATOR = new DomainValidator(false);
95  
96      /**
97       * Singleton instance of this validator, which does
98       *  consider local addresses valid.
99       */
100     private static final DomainValidator DOMAIN_VALIDATOR_WITH_LOCAL = new DomainValidator(true);
101 
102     /**
103      * RegexValidator for matching domains.
104      */
105     private final RegexValidator domainRegex =
106             new RegexValidator(DOMAIN_NAME_REGEX);
107     /**
108      * RegexValidator for matching a local hostname
109      */
110     // RFC1123 sec 2.1 allows hostnames to start with a digit
111     private final RegexValidator hostnameRegex =
112             new RegexValidator(DOMAIN_LABEL_REGEX);
113 
114     /**
115      * Returns the singleton instance of this validator. It
116      *  will not consider local addresses as valid.
117      * @return the singleton instance of this validator
118      */
119     public static synchronized DomainValidator getInstance() {
120         inUse = true;
121         return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR;
122     }
123 
124     /**
125      * Returns the singleton instance of this validator,
126      *  with local validation as required.
127      * @param allowLocal Should local addresses be considered valid?
128      * @return the singleton instance of this validator
129      */
130     public static synchronized DomainValidator getInstance(boolean allowLocal) {
131         inUse = true;
132        if(allowLocal) {
133           return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR_WITH_LOCAL;
134        }
135        return DOMAIN_VALIDATOR;
136     }
137 
138     /** Private constructor. */
139     private DomainValidator(boolean allowLocal) {
140        this.allowLocal = allowLocal;
141     }
142 
143     /**
144      * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> parses
145      * as a valid domain name with a recognized top-level domain.
146      * The parsing is case-insensitive.
147      * @param domain the parameter to check for domain name syntax
148      * @return true if the parameter is a valid domain name
149      */
150     public boolean isValid(String domain) {
151         if (domain == null) {
152             return false;
153         }
154         domain = unicodeToASCII(domain);
155         // hosts must be equally reachable via punycode and Unicode;
156         // Unicode is never shorter than punycode, so check punycode
157         // if domain did not convert, then it will be caught by ASCII
158         // checks in the regexes below
159         if (domain.length() > 253) {
160             return false;
161         }
162         String[] groups = domainRegex.match(domain);
163         if (groups != null && groups.length > 0) {
164             return isValidTld(groups[0]);
165         }
166         return allowLocal && hostnameRegex.isValid(domain);
167     }
168 
169     // package protected for unit test access
170     // must agree with isValid() above
171     final boolean isValidDomainSyntax(String domain) {
172         if (domain == null) {
173             return false;
174         }
175         domain = unicodeToASCII(domain);
176         // hosts must be equally reachable via punycode and Unicode;
177         // Unicode is never shorter than punycode, so check punycode
178         // if domain did not convert, then it will be caught by ASCII
179         // checks in the regexes below
180         if (domain.length() > 253) {
181             return false;
182         }
183         String[] groups = domainRegex.match(domain);
184         return (groups != null && groups.length > 0)
185                 || hostnameRegex.isValid(domain);
186     }
187 
188     /**
189      * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
190      * IANA-defined top-level domain. Leading dots are ignored if present.
191      * The search is case-insensitive.
192      * @param tld the parameter to check for TLD status, not null
193      * @return true if the parameter is a TLD
194      */
195     public boolean isValidTld(String tld) {
196         tld = unicodeToASCII(tld);
197         if(allowLocal && isValidLocalTld(tld)) {
198            return true;
199         }
200         return isValidInfrastructureTld(tld)
201                 || isValidGenericTld(tld)
202                 || isValidCountryCodeTld(tld);
203     }
204 
205     /**
206      * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
207      * IANA-defined infrastructure top-level domain. Leading dots are
208      * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
209      * @param iTld the parameter to check for infrastructure TLD status, not null
210      * @return true if the parameter is an infrastructure TLD
211      */
212     public boolean isValidInfrastructureTld(String iTld) {
213         final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(iTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
214         return arrayContains(INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS, key);
215     }
216 
217     /**
218      * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
219      * IANA-defined generic top-level domain. Leading dots are ignored
220      * if present. The search is case-insensitive.
221      * @param gTld the parameter to check for generic TLD status, not null
222      * @return true if the parameter is a generic TLD
223      */
224     public boolean isValidGenericTld(String gTld) {
225         final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(gTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
226         return (arrayContains(GENERIC_TLDS, key) || arrayContains(GENERIC_TLDS_PLUS, key))
227                 && !arrayContains(GENERIC_TLDS_MINUS, key);
228     }
229 
230     /**
231      * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
232      * IANA-defined country code top-level domain. Leading dots are
233      * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
234      * @param ccTld the parameter to check for country code TLD status, not null
235      * @return true if the parameter is a country code TLD
236      */
237     public boolean isValidCountryCodeTld(String ccTld) {
238         final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(ccTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
239         return (arrayContains(COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS, key) || arrayContains(COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_PLUS, key))
240                 && !arrayContains(COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_MINUS, key);
241     }
242 
243     /**
244      * Returns true if the specified <code>String</code> matches any
245      * widely used "local" domains (localhost or localdomain). Leading dots are
246      * ignored if present. The search is case-insensitive.
247      * @param lTld the parameter to check for local TLD status, not null
248      * @return true if the parameter is an local TLD
249      */
250     public boolean isValidLocalTld(String lTld) {
251         final String key = chompLeadingDot(unicodeToASCII(lTld).toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
252         return arrayContains(LOCAL_TLDS, key);
253     }
254 
255     private String chompLeadingDot(String str) {
256         if (str.startsWith(".")) {
257             return str.substring(1);
258         }
259         return str;
260     }
261 
262     // ---------------------------------------------
263     // ----- TLDs defined by IANA
264     // ----- Authoritative and comprehensive list at:
265     // ----- http://data.iana.org/TLD/tlds-alpha-by-domain.txt
266 
267     // Note that the above list is in UPPER case.
268     // The code currently converts strings to lower case (as per the tables below)
269 
270     // IANA also provide an HTML list at http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db
271     // Note that this contains several country code entries which are NOT in
272     // the text file. These all have the "Not assigned" in the "Sponsoring Organisation" column
273     // For example (as of 2015-01-02):
274     // .bl  country-code    Not assigned
275     // .um  country-code    Not assigned
276 
277     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
278     private static final String[] INFRASTRUCTURE_TLDS = new String[] {
279         "arpa",               // internet infrastructure
280     };
281 
282     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
283     private static final String[] GENERIC_TLDS = new String[] {
284         // Taken from Version 2015082801, Last Updated Sat Aug 29 07:07:01 2015 UTC
285         "aaa", // aaa American Automobile Association, Inc.
286         "aarp", // aarp AARP
287         "abb", // abb ABB Ltd
288         "abbott", // abbott Abbott Laboratories, Inc.
289         "abogado", // abogado Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
290         "academy", // academy Half Oaks, LLC
291         "accenture", // accenture Accenture plc
292         "accountant", // accountant dot Accountant Limited
293         "accountants", // accountants Knob Town, LLC
294         "aco", // aco ACO Severin Ahlmann GmbH &amp; Co. KG
295         "active", // active The Active Network, Inc
296         "actor", // actor United TLD Holdco Ltd.
297         "ads", // ads Charleston Road Registry Inc.
298         "adult", // adult ICM Registry AD LLC
299         "aeg", // aeg Aktiebolaget Electrolux
300         "aero", // aero Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautique (SITA INC USA)
301         "afl", // afl Australian Football League
302         "agency", // agency Steel Falls, LLC
303         "aig", // aig American International Group, Inc.
304         "airforce", // airforce United TLD Holdco Ltd.
305         "airtel", // airtel Bharti Airtel Limited
306         "allfinanz", // allfinanz Allfinanz Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft
307         "alsace", // alsace REGION D ALSACE
308         "amica", // amica Amica Mutual Insurance Company
309         "amsterdam", // amsterdam Gemeente Amsterdam
310         "android", // android Charleston Road Registry Inc.
311         "apartments", // apartments June Maple, LLC
312         "app", // app Charleston Road Registry Inc.
313         "apple", // apple Apple Inc.
314         "aquarelle", // aquarelle Aquarelle.com
315         "aramco", // aramco Aramco Services Company
316         "archi", // archi STARTING DOT LIMITED
317         "army", // army United TLD Holdco Ltd.
318         "arte", // arte Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne G.E.I.E.
319         "asia", // asia DotAsia Organisation Ltd.
320         "associates", // associates Baxter Hill, LLC
321         "attorney", // attorney United TLD Holdco, Ltd
322         "auction", // auction United TLD HoldCo, Ltd.
323         "audio", // audio Uniregistry, Corp.
324         "auto", // auto Uniregistry, Corp.
325         "autos", // autos DERAutos, LLC
326         "axa", // axa AXA SA
327         "azure", // azure Microsoft Corporation
328         "band", // band United TLD Holdco, Ltd
329         "bank", // bank fTLD Registry Services, LLC
330         "bar", // bar Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable
331         "barcelona", // barcelona Municipi de Barcelona
332         "barclaycard", // barclaycard Barclays Bank PLC
333         "barclays", // barclays Barclays Bank PLC
334         "bargains", // bargains Half Hallow, LLC
335         "bauhaus", // bauhaus Werkhaus GmbH
336         "bayern", // bayern Bayern Connect GmbH
337         "bbc", // bbc British Broadcasting Corporation
338         "bbva", // bbva BANCO BILBAO VIZCAYA ARGENTARIA, S.A.
339         "bcn", // bcn Municipi de Barcelona
340         "beats", // beats Beats Electronics, LLC
341         "beer", // beer Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
342         "bentley", // bentley Bentley Motors Limited
343         "berlin", // berlin dotBERLIN GmbH &amp; Co. KG
344         "best", // best BestTLD Pty Ltd
345         "bet", // bet Afilias plc
346         "bharti", // bharti Bharti Enterprises (Holding) Private Limited
347         "bible", // bible American Bible Society
348         "bid", // bid dot Bid Limited
349         "bike", // bike Grand Hollow, LLC
350         "bing", // bing Microsoft Corporation
351         "bingo", // bingo Sand Cedar, LLC
352         "bio", // bio STARTING DOT LIMITED
353         "biz", // biz Neustar, Inc.
354         "black", // black Afilias Limited
355         "blackfriday", // blackfriday Uniregistry, Corp.
356         "bloomberg", // bloomberg Bloomberg IP Holdings LLC
357         "blue", // blue Afilias Limited
358         "bms", // bms Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
359         "bmw", // bmw Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft
360         "bnl", // bnl Banca Nazionale del Lavoro
361         "bnpparibas", // bnpparibas BNP Paribas
362         "boats", // boats DERBoats, LLC
363         "bom", // bom Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
364         "bond", // bond Bond University Limited
365         "boo", // boo Charleston Road Registry Inc.
366         "boots", // boots THE BOOTS COMPANY PLC
367         "boutique", // boutique Over Galley, LLC
368         "bradesco", // bradesco Banco Bradesco S.A.
369         "bridgestone", // bridgestone Bridgestone Corporation
370         "broker", // broker DOTBROKER REGISTRY LTD
371         "brother", // brother Brother Industries, Ltd.
372         "brussels", // brussels DNS.be vzw
373         "budapest", // budapest Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
374         "build", // build Plan Bee LLC
375         "builders", // builders Atomic Madison, LLC
376         "business", // business Spring Cross, LLC
377         "buzz", // buzz DOTSTRATEGY CO.
378         "bzh", // bzh Association www.bzh
379         "cab", // cab Half Sunset, LLC
380         "cafe", // cafe Pioneer Canyon, LLC
381         "cal", // cal Charleston Road Registry Inc.
382         "camera", // camera Atomic Maple, LLC
383         "camp", // camp Delta Dynamite, LLC
384         "cancerresearch", // cancerresearch Australian Cancer Research Foundation
385         "canon", // canon Canon Inc.
386         "capetown", // capetown ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
387         "capital", // capital Delta Mill, LLC
388         "car", // car Cars Registry Limited
389         "caravan", // caravan Caravan International, Inc.
390         "cards", // cards Foggy Hollow, LLC
391         "care", // care Goose Cross, LLC
392         "career", // career dotCareer LLC
393         "careers", // careers Wild Corner, LLC
394         "cars", // cars Uniregistry, Corp.
395         "cartier", // cartier Richemont DNS Inc.
396         "casa", // casa Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
397         "cash", // cash Delta Lake, LLC
398         "casino", // casino Binky Sky, LLC
399         "cat", // cat Fundacio puntCAT
400         "catering", // catering New Falls. LLC
401         "cba", // cba COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
402         "cbn", // cbn The Christian Broadcasting Network, Inc.
403         "ceb", // ceb The Corporate Executive Board Company
404         "center", // center Tin Mill, LLC
405         "ceo", // ceo CEOTLD Pty Ltd
406         "cern", // cern European Organization for Nuclear Research (&quot;CERN&quot;)
407         "cfa", // cfa CFA Institute
408         "cfd", // cfd DOTCFD REGISTRY LTD
409         "chanel", // chanel Chanel International B.V.
410         "channel", // channel Charleston Road Registry Inc.
411         "chat", // chat Sand Fields, LLC
412         "cheap", // cheap Sand Cover, LLC
413         "chloe", // chloe Richemont DNS Inc.
414         "christmas", // christmas Uniregistry, Corp.
415         "chrome", // chrome Charleston Road Registry Inc.
416         "church", // church Holly Fileds, LLC
417         "cipriani", // cipriani Hotel Cipriani Srl
418         "cisco", // cisco Cisco Technology, Inc.
419         "citic", // citic CITIC Group Corporation
420         "city", // city Snow Sky, LLC
421         "claims", // claims Black Corner, LLC
422         "cleaning", // cleaning Fox Shadow, LLC
423         "click", // click Uniregistry, Corp.
424         "clinic", // clinic Goose Park, LLC
425         "clothing", // clothing Steel Lake, LLC
426         "cloud", // cloud ARUBA S.p.A.
427         "club", // club .CLUB DOMAINS, LLC
428         "clubmed", // clubmed Club Méditerranée S.A.
429         "coach", // coach Koko Island, LLC
430         "codes", // codes Puff Willow, LLC
431         "coffee", // coffee Trixy Cover, LLC
432         "college", // college XYZ.COM LLC
433         "cologne", // cologne NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH
434         "com", // com VeriSign Global Registry Services
435         "commbank", // commbank COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
436         "community", // community Fox Orchard, LLC
437         "company", // company Silver Avenue, LLC
438         "computer", // computer Pine Mill, LLC
439         "condos", // condos Pine House, LLC
440         "construction", // construction Fox Dynamite, LLC
441         "consulting", // consulting United TLD Holdco, LTD.
442         "contractors", // contractors Magic Woods, LLC
443         "cooking", // cooking Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
444         "cool", // cool Koko Lake, LLC
445         "coop", // coop DotCooperation LLC
446         "corsica", // corsica Collectivité Territoriale de Corse
447         "country", // country Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
448         "coupons", // coupons Black Island, LLC
449         "courses", // courses OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
450         "credit", // credit Snow Shadow, LLC
451         "creditcard", // creditcard Binky Frostbite, LLC
452         "cricket", // cricket dot Cricket Limited
453         "crown", // crown Crown Equipment Corporation
454         "crs", // crs Federated Co-operatives Limited
455         "cruises", // cruises Spring Way, LLC
456         "csc", // csc Alliance-One Services, Inc.
457         "cuisinella", // cuisinella SALM S.A.S.
458         "cymru", // cymru Nominet UK
459         "cyou", // cyou Beijing Gamease Age Digital Technology Co., Ltd.
460         "dabur", // dabur Dabur India Limited
461         "dad", // dad Charleston Road Registry Inc.
462         "dance", // dance United TLD Holdco Ltd.
463         "date", // date dot Date Limited
464         "dating", // dating Pine Fest, LLC
465         "datsun", // datsun NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
466         "day", // day Charleston Road Registry Inc.
467         "dclk", // dclk Charleston Road Registry Inc.
468         "deals", // deals Sand Sunset, LLC
469         "degree", // degree United TLD Holdco, Ltd
470         "delivery", // delivery Steel Station, LLC
471         "dell", // dell Dell Inc.
472         "delta", // delta Delta Air Lines, Inc.
473         "democrat", // democrat United TLD Holdco Ltd.
474         "dental", // dental Tin Birch, LLC
475         "dentist", // dentist United TLD Holdco, Ltd
476         "desi", // desi Desi Networks LLC
477         "design", // design Top Level Design, LLC
478         "dev", // dev Charleston Road Registry Inc.
479         "diamonds", // diamonds John Edge, LLC
480         "diet", // diet Uniregistry, Corp.
481         "digital", // digital Dash Park, LLC
482         "direct", // direct Half Trail, LLC
483         "directory", // directory Extra Madison, LLC
484         "discount", // discount Holly Hill, LLC
485         "dnp", // dnp Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.
486         "docs", // docs Charleston Road Registry Inc.
487         "dog", // dog Koko Mill, LLC
488         "doha", // doha Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA)
489         "domains", // domains Sugar Cross, LLC
490         "doosan", // doosan Doosan Corporation
491         "download", // download dot Support Limited
492         "drive", // drive Charleston Road Registry Inc.
493         "durban", // durban ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
494         "dvag", // dvag Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
495         "earth", // earth Interlink Co., Ltd.
496         "eat", // eat Charleston Road Registry Inc.
497         "edu", // edu EDUCAUSE
498         "education", // education Brice Way, LLC
499         "email", // email Spring Madison, LLC
500         "emerck", // emerck Merck KGaA
501         "energy", // energy Binky Birch, LLC
502         "engineer", // engineer United TLD Holdco Ltd.
503         "engineering", // engineering Romeo Canyon
504         "enterprises", // enterprises Snow Oaks, LLC
505         "epson", // epson Seiko Epson Corporation
506         "equipment", // equipment Corn Station, LLC
507         "erni", // erni ERNI Group Holding AG
508         "esq", // esq Charleston Road Registry Inc.
509         "estate", // estate Trixy Park, LLC
510         "eurovision", // eurovision European Broadcasting Union (EBU)
511         "eus", // eus Puntueus Fundazioa
512         "events", // events Pioneer Maple, LLC
513         "everbank", // everbank EverBank
514         "exchange", // exchange Spring Falls, LLC
515         "expert", // expert Magic Pass, LLC
516         "exposed", // exposed Victor Beach, LLC
517         "express", // express Sea Sunset, LLC
518         "fage", // fage Fage International S.A.
519         "fail", // fail Atomic Pipe, LLC
520         "faith", // faith dot Faith Limited
521         "family", // family United TLD Holdco Ltd.
522         "fan", // fan Asiamix Digital Ltd
523         "fans", // fans Asiamix Digital Limited
524         "farm", // farm Just Maple, LLC
525         "fashion", // fashion Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
526         "feedback", // feedback Top Level Spectrum, Inc.
527         "ferrero", // ferrero Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
528         "film", // film Motion Picture Domain Registry Pty Ltd
529         "final", // final Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR - NIC.br
530         "finance", // finance Cotton Cypress, LLC
531         "financial", // financial Just Cover, LLC
532         "firmdale", // firmdale Firmdale Holdings Limited
533         "fish", // fish Fox Woods, LLC
534         "fishing", // fishing Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
535         "fit", // fit Minds + Machines Group Limited
536         "fitness", // fitness Brice Orchard, LLC
537         "flights", // flights Fox Station, LLC
538         "florist", // florist Half Cypress, LLC
539         "flowers", // flowers Uniregistry, Corp.
540         "flsmidth", // flsmidth FLSmidth A/S
541         "fly", // fly Charleston Road Registry Inc.
542         "foo", // foo Charleston Road Registry Inc.
543         "football", // football Foggy Farms, LLC
544         "forex", // forex DOTFOREX REGISTRY LTD
545         "forsale", // forsale United TLD Holdco, LLC
546         "forum", // forum Fegistry, LLC
547         "foundation", // foundation John Dale, LLC
548         "frl", // frl FRLregistry B.V.
549         "frogans", // frogans OP3FT
550         "fund", // fund John Castle, LLC
551         "furniture", // furniture Lone Fields, LLC
552         "futbol", // futbol United TLD Holdco, Ltd.
553         "fyi", // fyi Silver Tigers, LLC
554         "gal", // gal Asociación puntoGAL
555         "gallery", // gallery Sugar House, LLC
556         "game", // game Uniregistry, Corp.
557         "garden", // garden Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
558         "gbiz", // gbiz Charleston Road Registry Inc.
559         "gdn", // gdn Joint Stock Company "Navigation-information systems"
560         "gea", // gea GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft
561         "gent", // gent COMBELL GROUP NV/SA
562         "genting", // genting Resorts World Inc. Pte. Ltd.
563         "ggee", // ggee GMO Internet, Inc.
564         "gift", // gift Uniregistry, Corp.
565         "gifts", // gifts Goose Sky, LLC
566         "gives", // gives United TLD Holdco Ltd.
567         "giving", // giving Giving Limited
568         "glass", // glass Black Cover, LLC
569         "gle", // gle Charleston Road Registry Inc.
570         "global", // global Dot Global Domain Registry Limited
571         "globo", // globo Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A
572         "gmail", // gmail Charleston Road Registry Inc.
573         "gmo", // gmo GMO Internet, Inc.
574         "gmx", // gmx 1&amp;1 Mail &amp; Media GmbH
575         "gold", // gold June Edge, LLC
576         "goldpoint", // goldpoint YODOBASHI CAMERA CO.,LTD.
577         "golf", // golf Lone Falls, LLC
578         "goo", // goo NTT Resonant Inc.
579         "goog", // goog Charleston Road Registry Inc.
580         "google", // google Charleston Road Registry Inc.
581         "gop", // gop Republican State Leadership Committee, Inc.
582         "gov", // gov General Services Administration Attn: QTDC, 2E08 (.gov Domain Registration)
583         "graphics", // graphics Over Madison, LLC
584         "gratis", // gratis Pioneer Tigers, LLC
585         "green", // green Afilias Limited
586         "gripe", // gripe Corn Sunset, LLC
587         "group", // group Romeo Town, LLC
588         "gucci", // gucci Guccio Gucci S.p.a.
589         "guge", // guge Charleston Road Registry Inc.
590         "guide", // guide Snow Moon, LLC
591         "guitars", // guitars Uniregistry, Corp.
592         "guru", // guru Pioneer Cypress, LLC
593         "hamburg", // hamburg Hamburg Top-Level-Domain GmbH
594         "hangout", // hangout Charleston Road Registry Inc.
595         "haus", // haus United TLD Holdco, LTD.
596         "healthcare", // healthcare Silver Glen, LLC
597         "help", // help Uniregistry, Corp.
598         "here", // here Charleston Road Registry Inc.
599         "hermes", // hermes Hermes International
600         "hiphop", // hiphop Uniregistry, Corp.
601         "hitachi", // hitachi Hitachi, Ltd.
602         "hiv", // hiv dotHIV gemeinnuetziger e.V.
603         "hockey", // hockey Half Willow, LLC
604         "holdings", // holdings John Madison, LLC
605         "holiday", // holiday Goose Woods, LLC
606         "homedepot", // homedepot Homer TLC, Inc.
607         "homes", // homes DERHomes, LLC
608         "honda", // honda Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
609         "horse", // horse Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
610         "host", // host DotHost Inc.
611         "hosting", // hosting Uniregistry, Corp.
612         "hoteles", // hoteles Travel Reservations SRL
613         "hotmail", // hotmail Microsoft Corporation
614         "house", // house Sugar Park, LLC
615         "how", // how Charleston Road Registry Inc.
616         "hsbc", // hsbc HSBC Holdings PLC
617         "hyundai", // hyundai Hyundai Motor Company
618         "ibm", // ibm International Business Machines Corporation
619         "icbc", // icbc Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited
620         "ice", // ice IntercontinentalExchange, Inc.
621         "icu", // icu One.com A/S
622         "ifm", // ifm ifm electronic gmbh
623         "iinet", // iinet Connect West Pty. Ltd.
624         "immo", // immo Auburn Bloom, LLC
625         "immobilien", // immobilien United TLD Holdco Ltd.
626         "industries", // industries Outer House, LLC
627         "infiniti", // infiniti NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
628         "info", // info Afilias Limited
629         "ing", // ing Charleston Road Registry Inc.
630         "ink", // ink Top Level Design, LLC
631         "institute", // institute Outer Maple, LLC
632         "insure", // insure Pioneer Willow, LLC
633         "int", // int Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
634         "international", // international Wild Way, LLC
635         "investments", // investments Holly Glen, LLC
636         "ipiranga", // ipiranga Ipiranga Produtos de Petroleo S.A.
637         "irish", // irish Dot-Irish LLC
638         "ist", // ist Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
639         "istanbul", // istanbul Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality / Medya A.S.
640         "itau", // itau Itau Unibanco Holding S.A.
641         "iwc", // iwc Richemont DNS Inc.
642         "jaguar", // jaguar Jaguar Land Rover Ltd
643         "java", // java Oracle Corporation
644         "jcb", // jcb JCB Co., Ltd.
645         "jetzt", // jetzt New TLD Company AB
646         "jewelry", // jewelry Wild Bloom, LLC
647         "jlc", // jlc Richemont DNS Inc.
648         "jll", // jll Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
649         "jobs", // jobs Employ Media LLC
650         "joburg", // joburg ZA Central Registry NPC trading as ZA Central Registry
651         "jprs", // jprs Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd.
652         "juegos", // juegos Uniregistry, Corp.
653         "kaufen", // kaufen United TLD Holdco Ltd.
654         "kddi", // kddi KDDI CORPORATION
655         "kia", // kia KIA MOTORS CORPORATION
656         "kim", // kim Afilias Limited
657         "kinder", // kinder Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
658         "kitchen", // kitchen Just Goodbye, LLC
659         "kiwi", // kiwi DOT KIWI LIMITED
660         "koeln", // koeln NetCologne Gesellschaft für Telekommunikation mbH
661         "komatsu", // komatsu Komatsu Ltd.
662         "krd", // krd KRG Department of Information Technology
663         "kred", // kred KredTLD Pty Ltd
664         "kyoto", // kyoto Academic Institution: Kyoto Jyoho Gakuen
665         "lacaixa", // lacaixa CAIXA D&#39;ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA
666         "lancaster", // lancaster LANCASTER
667         "land", // land Pine Moon, LLC
668         "landrover", // landrover Jaguar Land Rover Ltd
669         "lasalle", // lasalle Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated
670         "lat", // lat ECOM-LAC Federación de Latinoamérica y el Caribe para Internet y el Comercio Electrónico
671         "latrobe", // latrobe La Trobe University
672         "law", // law Minds + Machines Group Limited
673         "lawyer", // lawyer United TLD Holdco, Ltd
674         "lds", // lds IRI Domain Management, LLC
675         "lease", // lease Victor Trail, LLC
676         "leclerc", // leclerc A.C.D. LEC Association des Centres Distributeurs Edouard Leclerc
677         "legal", // legal Blue Falls, LLC
678         "lexus", // lexus TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
679         "lgbt", // lgbt Afilias Limited
680         "liaison", // liaison Liaison Technologies, Incorporated
681         "lidl", // lidl Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH &amp; Co. KG
682         "life", // life Trixy Oaks, LLC
683         "lighting", // lighting John McCook, LLC
684         "limited", // limited Big Fest, LLC
685         "limo", // limo Hidden Frostbite, LLC
686         "linde", // linde Linde Aktiengesellschaft
687         "link", // link Uniregistry, Corp.
688         "live", // live United TLD Holdco Ltd.
689         "lixil", // lixil LIXIL Group Corporation
690         "loan", // loan dot Loan Limited
691         "loans", // loans June Woods, LLC
692         "lol", // lol Uniregistry, Corp.
693         "london", // london Dot London Domains Limited
694         "lotte", // lotte Lotte Holdings Co., Ltd.
695         "lotto", // lotto Afilias Limited
696         "love", // love Merchant Law Group LLP
697         "ltd", // ltd Over Corner, LLC
698         "ltda", // ltda InterNetX Corp.
699         "lupin", // lupin LUPIN LIMITED
700         "luxe", // luxe Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
701         "luxury", // luxury Luxury Partners LLC
702         "madrid", // madrid Comunidad de Madrid
703         "maif", // maif Mutuelle Assurance Instituteur France (MAIF)
704         "maison", // maison Victor Frostbite, LLC
705         "man", // man MAN SE
706         "management", // management John Goodbye, LLC
707         "mango", // mango PUNTO FA S.L.
708         "market", // market Unitied TLD Holdco, Ltd
709         "marketing", // marketing Fern Pass, LLC
710         "markets", // markets DOTMARKETS REGISTRY LTD
711         "marriott", // marriott Marriott Worldwide Corporation
712         "mba", // mba Lone Hollow, LLC
713         "media", // media Grand Glen, LLC
714         "meet", // meet Afilias Limited
715         "melbourne", // melbourne The Crown in right of the State of Victoria, represented by its Department of State Development, Business and Innovation
716         "meme", // meme Charleston Road Registry Inc.
717         "memorial", // memorial Dog Beach, LLC
718         "men", // men Exclusive Registry Limited
719         "menu", // menu Wedding TLD2, LLC
720         "meo", // meo PT Comunicacoes S.A.
721         "miami", // miami Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
722         "microsoft", // microsoft Microsoft Corporation
723         "mil", // mil DoD Network Information Center
724         "mini", // mini Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft
725         "mma", // mma MMA IARD
726         "mobi", // mobi Afilias Technologies Limited dba dotMobi
727         "moda", // moda United TLD Holdco Ltd.
728         "moe", // moe Interlink Co., Ltd.
729         "moi", // moi Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
730         "mom", // mom Uniregistry, Corp.
731         "monash", // monash Monash University
732         "money", // money Outer McCook, LLC
733         "montblanc", // montblanc Richemont DNS Inc.
734         "mormon", // mormon IRI Domain Management, LLC (&quot;Applicant&quot;)
735         "mortgage", // mortgage United TLD Holdco, Ltd
736         "moscow", // moscow Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID)
737         "motorcycles", // motorcycles DERMotorcycles, LLC
738         "mov", // mov Charleston Road Registry Inc.
739         "movie", // movie New Frostbite, LLC
740         "movistar", // movistar Telefónica S.A.
741         "mtn", // mtn MTN Dubai Limited
742         "mtpc", // mtpc Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation
743         "mtr", // mtr MTR Corporation Limited
744         "museum", // museum Museum Domain Management Association
745         "mutuelle", // mutuelle Fédération Nationale de la Mutualité Française
746         "nadex", // nadex Nadex Domains, Inc
747         "nagoya", // nagoya GMO Registry, Inc.
748         "name", // name VeriSign Information Services, Inc.
749         "navy", // navy United TLD Holdco Ltd.
750         "nec", // nec NEC Corporation
751         "net", // net VeriSign Global Registry Services
752         "netbank", // netbank COMMONWEALTH BANK OF AUSTRALIA
753         "network", // network Trixy Manor, LLC
754         "neustar", // neustar NeuStar, Inc.
755         "new", // new Charleston Road Registry Inc.
756         "news", // news United TLD Holdco Ltd.
757         "nexus", // nexus Charleston Road Registry Inc.
758         "ngo", // ngo Public Interest Registry
759         "nhk", // nhk Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK)
760         "nico", // nico DWANGO Co., Ltd.
761         "ninja", // ninja United TLD Holdco Ltd.
762         "nissan", // nissan NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
763         "nokia", // nokia Nokia Corporation
764         "nra", // nra NRA Holdings Company, INC.
765         "nrw", // nrw Minds + Machines GmbH
766         "ntt", // ntt NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION
767         "nyc", // nyc The City of New York by and through the New York City Department of Information Technology &amp; Telecommunications
768         "obi", // obi OBI Group Holding SE &amp; Co. KGaA
769         "office", // office Microsoft Corporation
770         "okinawa", // okinawa BusinessRalliart inc.
771         "omega", // omega The Swatch Group Ltd
772         "one", // one One.com A/S
773         "ong", // ong Public Interest Registry
774         "onl", // onl I-REGISTRY Ltd., Niederlassung Deutschland
775         "online", // online DotOnline Inc.
776         "ooo", // ooo INFIBEAM INCORPORATION LIMITED
777         "oracle", // oracle Oracle Corporation
778         "orange", // orange Orange Brand Services Limited
779         "org", // org Public Interest Registry (PIR)
780         "organic", // organic Afilias Limited
781         "osaka", // osaka Interlink Co., Ltd.
782         "otsuka", // otsuka Otsuka Holdings Co., Ltd.
783         "ovh", // ovh OVH SAS
784         "page", // page Charleston Road Registry Inc.
785         "panerai", // panerai Richemont DNS Inc.
786         "paris", // paris City of Paris
787         "partners", // partners Magic Glen, LLC
788         "parts", // parts Sea Goodbye, LLC
789         "party", // party Blue Sky Registry Limited
790         "pet", // pet Afilias plc
791         "pharmacy", // pharmacy National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
792         "philips", // philips Koninklijke Philips N.V.
793         "photo", // photo Uniregistry, Corp.
794         "photography", // photography Sugar Glen, LLC
795         "photos", // photos Sea Corner, LLC
796         "physio", // physio PhysBiz Pty Ltd
797         "piaget", // piaget Richemont DNS Inc.
798         "pics", // pics Uniregistry, Corp.
799         "pictet", // pictet Pictet Europe S.A.
800         "pictures", // pictures Foggy Sky, LLC
801         "ping", // ping Ping Registry Provider, Inc.
802         "pink", // pink Afilias Limited
803         "pizza", // pizza Foggy Moon, LLC
804         "place", // place Snow Galley, LLC
805         "play", // play Charleston Road Registry Inc.
806         "playstation", // playstation Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.
807         "plumbing", // plumbing Spring Tigers, LLC
808         "plus", // plus Sugar Mill, LLC
809         "pohl", // pohl Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
810         "poker", // poker Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited
811         "porn", // porn ICM Registry PN LLC
812         "post", // post Universal Postal Union
813         "praxi", // praxi Praxi S.p.A.
814         "press", // press DotPress Inc.
815         "pro", // pro Registry Services Corporation dba RegistryPro
816         "prod", // prod Charleston Road Registry Inc.
817         "productions", // productions Magic Birch, LLC
818         "prof", // prof Charleston Road Registry Inc.
819         "properties", // properties Big Pass, LLC
820         "property", // property Uniregistry, Corp.
821         "protection", // protection XYZ.COM LLC
822         "pub", // pub United TLD Holdco Ltd.
823         "qpon", // qpon dotCOOL, Inc.
824         "quebec", // quebec PointQuébec Inc
825         "racing", // racing Premier Registry Limited
826         "realtor", // realtor Real Estate Domains LLC
827         "realty", // realty Fegistry, LLC
828         "recipes", // recipes Grand Island, LLC
829         "red", // red Afilias Limited
830         "redstone", // redstone Redstone Haute Couture Co., Ltd.
831         "rehab", // rehab United TLD Holdco Ltd.
832         "reise", // reise Foggy Way, LLC
833         "reisen", // reisen New Cypress, LLC
834         "reit", // reit National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, Inc.
835         "ren", // ren Beijing Qianxiang Wangjing Technology Development Co., Ltd.
836         "rent", // rent XYZ.COM LLC
837         "rentals", // rentals Big Hollow,LLC
838         "repair", // repair Lone Sunset, LLC
839         "report", // report Binky Glen, LLC
840         "republican", // republican United TLD Holdco Ltd.
841         "rest", // rest Punto 2012 Sociedad Anonima Promotora de Inversion de Capital Variable
842         "restaurant", // restaurant Snow Avenue, LLC
843         "review", // review dot Review Limited
844         "reviews", // reviews United TLD Holdco, Ltd.
845         "rich", // rich I-REGISTRY Ltd., Niederlassung Deutschland
846         "ricoh", // ricoh Ricoh Company, Ltd.
847         "rio", // rio Empresa Municipal de Informática SA - IPLANRIO
848         "rip", // rip United TLD Holdco Ltd.
849         "rocher", // rocher Ferrero Trading Lux S.A.
850         "rocks", // rocks United TLD Holdco, LTD.
851         "rodeo", // rodeo Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
852         "rsvp", // rsvp Charleston Road Registry Inc.
853         "ruhr", // ruhr regiodot GmbH &amp; Co. KG
854         "run", // run Snow Park, LLC
855         "rwe", // rwe RWE AG
856         "ryukyu", // ryukyu BusinessRalliart inc.
857         "saarland", // saarland dotSaarland GmbH
858         "sakura", // sakura SAKURA Internet Inc.
859         "sale", // sale United TLD Holdco, Ltd
860         "samsung", // samsung SAMSUNG SDS CO., LTD
861         "sandvik", // sandvik Sandvik AB
862         "sandvikcoromant", // sandvikcoromant Sandvik AB
863         "sanofi", // sanofi Sanofi
864         "sap", // sap SAP AG
865         "sapo", // sapo PT Comunicacoes S.A.
866         "sarl", // sarl Delta Orchard, LLC
867         "saxo", // saxo Saxo Bank A/S
868         "sbs", // sbs SPECIAL BROADCASTING SERVICE CORPORATION
869         "sca", // sca SVENSKA CELLULOSA AKTIEBOLAGET SCA (publ)
870         "scb", // scb The Siam Commercial Bank Public Company Limited (&quot;SCB&quot;)
871         "schmidt", // schmidt SALM S.A.S.
872         "scholarships", // scholarships Scholarships.com, LLC
873         "school", // school Little Galley, LLC
874         "schule", // schule Outer Moon, LLC
875         "schwarz", // schwarz Schwarz Domains und Services GmbH &amp; Co. KG
876         "science", // science dot Science Limited
877         "scor", // scor SCOR SE
878         "scot", // scot Dot Scot Registry Limited
879         "seat", // seat SEAT, S.A. (Sociedad Unipersonal)
880         "security", // security XYZ.COM LLC
881         "seek", // seek Seek Limited
882         "sener", // sener Sener Ingeniería y Sistemas, S.A.
883         "services", // services Fox Castle, LLC
884         "seven", // seven Seven West Media Ltd
885         "sew", // sew SEW-EURODRIVE GmbH &amp; Co KG
886         "sex", // sex ICM Registry SX LLC
887         "sexy", // sexy Uniregistry, Corp.
888         "shiksha", // shiksha Afilias Limited
889         "shoes", // shoes Binky Galley, LLC
890         "show", // show Snow Beach, LLC
891         "shriram", // shriram Shriram Capital Ltd.
892         "singles", // singles Fern Madison, LLC
893         "site", // site DotSite Inc.
894         "ski", // ski STARTING DOT LIMITED
895         "sky", // sky Sky International AG
896         "skype", // skype Microsoft Corporation
897         "sncf", // sncf SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais)
898         "soccer", // soccer Foggy Shadow, LLC
899         "social", // social United TLD Holdco Ltd.
900         "software", // software United TLD Holdco, Ltd
901         "sohu", // sohu Sohu.com Limited
902         "solar", // solar Ruby Town, LLC
903         "solutions", // solutions Silver Cover, LLC
904         "sony", // sony Sony Corporation
905         "soy", // soy Charleston Road Registry Inc.
906         "space", // space DotSpace Inc.
907         "spiegel", // spiegel SPIEGEL-Verlag Rudolf Augstein GmbH &amp; Co. KG
908         "spreadbetting", // spreadbetting DOTSPREADBETTING REGISTRY LTD
909         "srl", // srl InterNetX Corp.
910         "stada", // stada STADA Arzneimittel AG
911         "starhub", // starhub StarHub Limited
912         "statoil", // statoil Statoil ASA
913         "stc", // stc Saudi Telecom Company
914         "stcgroup", // stcgroup Saudi Telecom Company
915         "stockholm", // stockholm Stockholms kommun
916         "studio", // studio United TLD Holdco Ltd.
917         "study", // study OPEN UNIVERSITIES AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
918         "style", // style Binky Moon, LLC
919         "sucks", // sucks Vox Populi Registry Ltd.
920         "supplies", // supplies Atomic Fields, LLC
921         "supply", // supply Half Falls, LLC
922         "support", // support Grand Orchard, LLC
923         "surf", // surf Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
924         "surgery", // surgery Tin Avenue, LLC
925         "suzuki", // suzuki SUZUKI MOTOR CORPORATION
926         "swatch", // swatch The Swatch Group Ltd
927         "swiss", // swiss Swiss Confederation
928         "sydney", // sydney State of New South Wales, Department of Premier and Cabinet
929         "systems", // systems Dash Cypress, LLC
930         "taipei", // taipei Taipei City Government
931         "tatamotors", // tatamotors Tata Motors Ltd
932         "tatar", // tatar Limited Liability Company &quot;Coordination Center of Regional Domain of Tatarstan Republic&quot;
933         "tattoo", // tattoo Uniregistry, Corp.
934         "tax", // tax Storm Orchard, LLC
935         "taxi", // taxi Pine Falls, LLC
936         "team", // team Atomic Lake, LLC
937         "tech", // tech Dot Tech LLC
938         "technology", // technology Auburn Falls, LLC
939         "tel", // tel Telnic Ltd.
940         "telefonica", // telefonica Telefónica S.A.
941         "temasek", // temasek Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited
942         "tennis", // tennis Cotton Bloom, LLC
943         "thd", // thd Homer TLC, Inc.
944         "theater", // theater Blue Tigers, LLC
945         "theatre", // theatre XYZ.COM LLC
946         "tickets", // tickets Accent Media Limited
947         "tienda", // tienda Victor Manor, LLC
948         "tips", // tips Corn Willow, LLC
949         "tires", // tires Dog Edge, LLC
950         "tirol", // tirol punkt Tirol GmbH
951         "today", // today Pearl Woods, LLC
952         "tokyo", // tokyo GMO Registry, Inc.
953         "tools", // tools Pioneer North, LLC
954         "top", // top Jiangsu Bangning Science &amp; Technology Co.,Ltd.
955         "toray", // toray Toray Industries, Inc.
956         "toshiba", // toshiba TOSHIBA Corporation
957         "tours", // tours Sugar Station, LLC
958         "town", // town Koko Moon, LLC
959         "toyota", // toyota TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
960         "toys", // toys Pioneer Orchard, LLC
961         "trade", // trade Elite Registry Limited
962         "trading", // trading DOTTRADING REGISTRY LTD
963         "training", // training Wild Willow, LLC
964         "travel", // travel Tralliance Registry Management Company, LLC.
965         "trust", // trust Artemis Internet Inc
966         "tui", // tui TUI AG
967         "ubs", // ubs UBS AG
968         "university", // university Little Station, LLC
969         "uno", // uno Dot Latin LLC
970         "uol", // uol UBN INTERNET LTDA.
971         "vacations", // vacations Atomic Tigers, LLC
972         "vegas", // vegas Dot Vegas, Inc.
973         "ventures", // ventures Binky Lake, LLC
974         "versicherung", // versicherung dotversicherung-registry GmbH
975         "vet", // vet United TLD Holdco, Ltd
976         "viajes", // viajes Black Madison, LLC
977         "video", // video United TLD Holdco, Ltd
978         "villas", // villas New Sky, LLC
979         "vin", // vin Holly Shadow, LLC
980         "virgin", // virgin Virgin Enterprises Limited
981         "vision", // vision Koko Station, LLC
982         "vista", // vista Vistaprint Limited
983         "vistaprint", // vistaprint Vistaprint Limited
984         "viva", // viva Saudi Telecom Company
985         "vlaanderen", // vlaanderen DNS.be vzw
986         "vodka", // vodka Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
987         "vote", // vote Monolith Registry LLC
988         "voting", // voting Valuetainment Corp.
989         "voto", // voto Monolith Registry LLC
990         "voyage", // voyage Ruby House, LLC
991         "wales", // wales Nominet UK
992         "walter", // walter Sandvik AB
993         "wang", // wang Zodiac Registry Limited
994         "watch", // watch Sand Shadow, LLC
995         "webcam", // webcam dot Webcam Limited
996         "website", // website DotWebsite Inc.
997         "wed", // wed Atgron, Inc.
998         "wedding", // wedding Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
999         "weir", // weir Weir Group IP Limited
1000         "whoswho", // whoswho Who&#39;s Who Registry
1001         "wien", // wien punkt.wien GmbH
1002         "wiki", // wiki Top Level Design, LLC
1003         "williamhill", // williamhill William Hill Organization Limited
1004         "win", // win First Registry Limited
1005         "windows", // windows Microsoft Corporation
1006         "wine", // wine June Station, LLC
1007         "wme", // wme William Morris Endeavor Entertainment, LLC
1008         "work", // work Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1009         "works", // works Little Dynamite, LLC
1010         "world", // world Bitter Fields, LLC
1011         "wtc", // wtc World Trade Centers Association, Inc.
1012         "wtf", // wtf Hidden Way, LLC
1013         "xbox", // xbox Microsoft Corporation
1014         "xerox", // xerox Xerox DNHC LLC
1015         "xin", // xin Elegant Leader Limited
1016         "xn--11b4c3d", // कॉम VeriSign Sarl
1017         "xn--1qqw23a", // 佛山 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd.
1018         "xn--30rr7y", // 慈善 Excellent First Limited
1019         "xn--3bst00m", // 集团 Eagle Horizon Limited
1020         "xn--3ds443g", // 在线 TLD REGISTRY LIMITED
1021         "xn--3pxu8k", // 点看 VeriSign Sarl
1022         "xn--42c2d9a", // คอม VeriSign Sarl
1023         "xn--45q11c", // 八卦 Zodiac Scorpio Limited
1024         "xn--4gbrim", // موقع Suhub Electronic Establishment
1025         "xn--55qw42g", // 公益 China Organizational Name Administration Center
1026         "xn--55qx5d", // 公司 Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China Internet Network Information Center)
1027         "xn--6frz82g", // 移动 Afilias Limited
1028         "xn--6qq986b3xl", // 我爱你 Tycoon Treasure Limited
1029         "xn--80adxhks", // москва Foundation for Assistance for Internet Technologies and Infrastructure Development (FAITID)
1030         "xn--80asehdb", // онлайн CORE Association
1031         "xn--80aswg", // сайт CORE Association
1032         "xn--9dbq2a", // קום VeriSign Sarl
1033         "xn--9et52u", // 时尚 RISE VICTORY LIMITED
1034         "xn--b4w605ferd", // 淡马锡 Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited
1035         "xn--c1avg", // орг Public Interest Registry
1036         "xn--c2br7g", // नेट VeriSign Sarl
1037         "xn--cg4bki", // 삼성 SAMSUNG SDS CO., LTD
1038         "xn--czr694b", // 商标 HU YI GLOBAL INFORMATION RESOURCES(HOLDING) COMPANY.HONGKONG LIMITED
1039         "xn--czrs0t", // 商店 Wild Island, LLC
1040         "xn--czru2d", // 商城 Zodiac Aquarius Limited
1041         "xn--d1acj3b", // дети The Foundation for Network Initiatives “The Smart Internet”
1042         "xn--efvy88h", // 新闻 Xinhua News Agency Guangdong Branch 新华通讯社广东分社
1043         "xn--estv75g", // 工行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited
1044         "xn--fhbei", // كوم VeriSign Sarl
1045         "xn--fiq228c5hs", // 中文网 TLD REGISTRY LIMITED
1046         "xn--fiq64b", // 中信 CITIC Group Corporation
1047         "xn--fjq720a", // 娱乐 Will Bloom, LLC
1048         "xn--flw351e", // 谷歌 Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1049         "xn--hxt814e", // 网店 Zodiac Libra Limited
1050         "xn--i1b6b1a6a2e", // संगठन Public Interest Registry
1051         "xn--imr513n", // 餐厅 HU YI GLOBAL INFORMATION RESOURCES (HOLDING) COMPANY. HONGKONG LIMITED
1052         "xn--io0a7i", // 网络 Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China Internet Network Information Center)
1053         "xn--j1aef", // ком VeriSign Sarl
1054         "xn--kcrx77d1x4a", // 飞利浦 Koninklijke Philips N.V.
1055         "xn--kput3i", // 手机 Beijing RITT-Net Technology Development Co., Ltd
1056         "xn--mgba3a3ejt", // ارامكو Aramco Services Company
1057         "xn--mgbab2bd", // بازار CORE Association
1058         "xn--mk1bu44c", // 닷컴 VeriSign Sarl
1059         "xn--mxtq1m", // 政府 Net-Chinese Co., Ltd.
1060         "xn--ngbc5azd", // شبكة International Domain Registry Pty. Ltd.
1061         "xn--nqv7f", // 机构 Public Interest Registry
1062         "xn--nqv7fs00ema", // 组织机构 Public Interest Registry
1063         "xn--nyqy26a", // 健康 Stable Tone Limited
1064         "xn--p1acf", // рус Rusnames Limited
1065         "xn--pssy2u", // 大拿 VeriSign Sarl
1066         "xn--q9jyb4c", // みんな Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1067         "xn--qcka1pmc", // グーグル Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1068         "xn--rhqv96g", // 世界 Stable Tone Limited
1069         "xn--ses554g", // 网址 KNET Co., Ltd
1070         "xn--t60b56a", // 닷넷 VeriSign Sarl
1071         "xn--tckwe", // コム VeriSign Sarl
1072         "xn--unup4y", // 游戏 Spring Fields, LLC
1073         "xn--vermgensberater-ctb", // VERMöGENSBERATER Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
1074         "xn--vermgensberatung-pwb", // VERMöGENSBERATUNG Deutsche Vermögensberatung Aktiengesellschaft DVAG
1075         "xn--vhquv", // 企业 Dash McCook, LLC
1076         "xn--vuq861b", // 信息 Beijing Tele-info Network Technology Co., Ltd.
1077         "xn--xhq521b", // 广东 Guangzhou YU Wei Information Technology Co., Ltd.
1078         "xn--zfr164b", // 政务 China Organizational Name Administration Center
1079         "xperia", // xperia Sony Mobile Communications AB
1080         "xxx", // xxx ICM Registry LLC
1081         "xyz", // xyz XYZ.COM LLC
1082         "yachts", // yachts DERYachts, LLC
1083         "yamaxun", // yamaxun Amazon Registry Services, Inc.
1084         "yandex", // yandex YANDEX, LLC
1085         "yodobashi", // yodobashi YODOBASHI CAMERA CO.,LTD.
1086         "yoga", // yoga Top Level Domain Holdings Limited
1087         "yokohama", // yokohama GMO Registry, Inc.
1088         "youtube", // youtube Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1089         "zara", // zara Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (INDITEX, S.A.)
1090         "zip", // zip Charleston Road Registry Inc.
1091         "zone", // zone Outer Falls, LLC
1092         "zuerich", // zuerich Kanton Zürich (Canton of Zurich)
1093     };
1094 
1095     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1096     private static final String[] COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS = new String[] {
1097         "ac",                 // Ascension Island
1098         "ad",                 // Andorra
1099         "ae",                 // United Arab Emirates
1100         "af",                 // Afghanistan
1101         "ag",                 // Antigua and Barbuda
1102         "ai",                 // Anguilla
1103         "al",                 // Albania
1104         "am",                 // Armenia
1105 //        "an",                 // Netherlands Antilles (retired)
1106         "ao",                 // Angola
1107         "aq",                 // Antarctica
1108         "ar",                 // Argentina
1109         "as",                 // American Samoa
1110         "at",                 // Austria
1111         "au",                 // Australia (includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands)
1112         "aw",                 // Aruba
1113         "ax",                 // Åland
1114         "az",                 // Azerbaijan
1115         "ba",                 // Bosnia and Herzegovina
1116         "bb",                 // Barbados
1117         "bd",                 // Bangladesh
1118         "be",                 // Belgium
1119         "bf",                 // Burkina Faso
1120         "bg",                 // Bulgaria
1121         "bh",                 // Bahrain
1122         "bi",                 // Burundi
1123         "bj",                 // Benin
1124         "bm",                 // Bermuda
1125         "bn",                 // Brunei Darussalam
1126         "bo",                 // Bolivia
1127         "br",                 // Brazil
1128         "bs",                 // Bahamas
1129         "bt",                 // Bhutan
1130         "bv",                 // Bouvet Island
1131         "bw",                 // Botswana
1132         "by",                 // Belarus
1133         "bz",                 // Belize
1134         "ca",                 // Canada
1135         "cc",                 // Cocos (Keeling) Islands
1136         "cd",                 // Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire)
1137         "cf",                 // Central African Republic
1138         "cg",                 // Republic of the Congo
1139         "ch",                 // Switzerland
1140         "ci",                 // Côte d'Ivoire
1141         "ck",                 // Cook Islands
1142         "cl",                 // Chile
1143         "cm",                 // Cameroon
1144         "cn",                 // China, mainland
1145         "co",                 // Colombia
1146         "cr",                 // Costa Rica
1147         "cu",                 // Cuba
1148         "cv",                 // Cape Verde
1149         "cw",                 // Curaçao
1150         "cx",                 // Christmas Island
1151         "cy",                 // Cyprus
1152         "cz",                 // Czech Republic
1153         "de",                 // Germany
1154         "dj",                 // Djibouti
1155         "dk",                 // Denmark
1156         "dm",                 // Dominica
1157         "do",                 // Dominican Republic
1158         "dz",                 // Algeria
1159         "ec",                 // Ecuador
1160         "ee",                 // Estonia
1161         "eg",                 // Egypt
1162         "er",                 // Eritrea
1163         "es",                 // Spain
1164         "et",                 // Ethiopia
1165         "eu",                 // European Union
1166         "fi",                 // Finland
1167         "fj",                 // Fiji
1168         "fk",                 // Falkland Islands
1169         "fm",                 // Federated States of Micronesia
1170         "fo",                 // Faroe Islands
1171         "fr",                 // France
1172         "ga",                 // Gabon
1173         "gb",                 // Great Britain (United Kingdom)
1174         "gd",                 // Grenada
1175         "ge",                 // Georgia
1176         "gf",                 // French Guiana
1177         "gg",                 // Guernsey
1178         "gh",                 // Ghana
1179         "gi",                 // Gibraltar
1180         "gl",                 // Greenland
1181         "gm",                 // The Gambia
1182         "gn",                 // Guinea
1183         "gp",                 // Guadeloupe
1184         "gq",                 // Equatorial Guinea
1185         "gr",                 // Greece
1186         "gs",                 // South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
1187         "gt",                 // Guatemala
1188         "gu",                 // Guam
1189         "gw",                 // Guinea-Bissau
1190         "gy",                 // Guyana
1191         "hk",                 // Hong Kong
1192         "hm",                 // Heard Island and McDonald Islands
1193         "hn",                 // Honduras
1194         "hr",                 // Croatia (Hrvatska)
1195         "ht",                 // Haiti
1196         "hu",                 // Hungary
1197         "id",                 // Indonesia
1198         "ie",                 // Ireland (Éire)
1199         "il",                 // Israel
1200         "im",                 // Isle of Man
1201         "in",                 // India
1202         "io",                 // British Indian Ocean Territory
1203         "iq",                 // Iraq
1204         "ir",                 // Iran
1205         "is",                 // Iceland
1206         "it",                 // Italy
1207         "je",                 // Jersey
1208         "jm",                 // Jamaica
1209         "jo",                 // Jordan
1210         "jp",                 // Japan
1211         "ke",                 // Kenya
1212         "kg",                 // Kyrgyzstan
1213         "kh",                 // Cambodia (Khmer)
1214         "ki",                 // Kiribati
1215         "km",                 // Comoros
1216         "kn",                 // Saint Kitts and Nevis
1217         "kp",                 // North Korea
1218         "kr",                 // South Korea
1219         "kw",                 // Kuwait
1220         "ky",                 // Cayman Islands
1221         "kz",                 // Kazakhstan
1222         "la",                 // Laos (currently being marketed as the official domain for Los Angeles)
1223         "lb",                 // Lebanon
1224         "lc",                 // Saint Lucia
1225         "li",                 // Liechtenstein
1226         "lk",                 // Sri Lanka
1227         "lr",                 // Liberia
1228         "ls",                 // Lesotho
1229         "lt",                 // Lithuania
1230         "lu",                 // Luxembourg
1231         "lv",                 // Latvia
1232         "ly",                 // Libya
1233         "ma",                 // Morocco
1234         "mc",                 // Monaco
1235         "md",                 // Moldova
1236         "me",                 // Montenegro
1237         "mg",                 // Madagascar
1238         "mh",                 // Marshall Islands
1239         "mk",                 // Republic of Macedonia
1240         "ml",                 // Mali
1241         "mm",                 // Myanmar
1242         "mn",                 // Mongolia
1243         "mo",                 // Macau
1244         "mp",                 // Northern Mariana Islands
1245         "mq",                 // Martinique
1246         "mr",                 // Mauritania
1247         "ms",                 // Montserrat
1248         "mt",                 // Malta
1249         "mu",                 // Mauritius
1250         "mv",                 // Maldives
1251         "mw",                 // Malawi
1252         "mx",                 // Mexico
1253         "my",                 // Malaysia
1254         "mz",                 // Mozambique
1255         "na",                 // Namibia
1256         "nc",                 // New Caledonia
1257         "ne",                 // Niger
1258         "nf",                 // Norfolk Island
1259         "ng",                 // Nigeria
1260         "ni",                 // Nicaragua
1261         "nl",                 // Netherlands
1262         "no",                 // Norway
1263         "np",                 // Nepal
1264         "nr",                 // Nauru
1265         "nu",                 // Niue
1266         "nz",                 // New Zealand
1267         "om",                 // Oman
1268         "pa",                 // Panama
1269         "pe",                 // Peru
1270         "pf",                 // French Polynesia With Clipperton Island
1271         "pg",                 // Papua New Guinea
1272         "ph",                 // Philippines
1273         "pk",                 // Pakistan
1274         "pl",                 // Poland
1275         "pm",                 // Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
1276         "pn",                 // Pitcairn Islands
1277         "pr",                 // Puerto Rico
1278         "ps",                 // Palestinian territories (PA-controlled West Bank and Gaza Strip)
1279         "pt",                 // Portugal
1280         "pw",                 // Palau
1281         "py",                 // Paraguay
1282         "qa",                 // Qatar
1283         "re",                 // Réunion
1284         "ro",                 // Romania
1285         "rs",                 // Serbia
1286         "ru",                 // Russia
1287         "rw",                 // Rwanda
1288         "sa",                 // Saudi Arabia
1289         "sb",                 // Solomon Islands
1290         "sc",                 // Seychelles
1291         "sd",                 // Sudan
1292         "se",                 // Sweden
1293         "sg",                 // Singapore
1294         "sh",                 // Saint Helena
1295         "si",                 // Slovenia
1296         "sj",                 // Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no)
1297         "sk",                 // Slovakia
1298         "sl",                 // Sierra Leone
1299         "sm",                 // San Marino
1300         "sn",                 // Senegal
1301         "so",                 // Somalia
1302         "sr",                 // Suriname
1303         "st",                 // São Tomé and Príncipe
1304         "su",                 // Soviet Union (deprecated)
1305         "sv",                 // El Salvador
1306         "sx",                 // Sint Maarten
1307         "sy",                 // Syria
1308         "sz",                 // Swaziland
1309         "tc",                 // Turks and Caicos Islands
1310         "td",                 // Chad
1311         "tf",                 // French Southern and Antarctic Lands
1312         "tg",                 // Togo
1313         "th",                 // Thailand
1314         "tj",                 // Tajikistan
1315         "tk",                 // Tokelau
1316         "tl",                 // East Timor (deprecated old code)
1317         "tm",                 // Turkmenistan
1318         "tn",                 // Tunisia
1319         "to",                 // Tonga
1320 //        "tp",                 // East Timor (Retired)
1321         "tr",                 // Turkey
1322         "tt",                 // Trinidad and Tobago
1323         "tv",                 // Tuvalu
1324         "tw",                 // Taiwan, Republic of China
1325         "tz",                 // Tanzania
1326         "ua",                 // Ukraine
1327         "ug",                 // Uganda
1328         "uk",                 // United Kingdom
1329         "us",                 // United States of America
1330         "uy",                 // Uruguay
1331         "uz",                 // Uzbekistan
1332         "va",                 // Vatican City State
1333         "vc",                 // Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1334         "ve",                 // Venezuela
1335         "vg",                 // British Virgin Islands
1336         "vi",                 // U.S. Virgin Islands
1337         "vn",                 // Vietnam
1338         "vu",                 // Vanuatu
1339         "wf",                 // Wallis and Futuna
1340         "ws",                 // Samoa (formerly Western Samoa)
1341         "xn--3e0b707e", // 한국 KISA (Korea Internet &amp; Security Agency)
1342         "xn--45brj9c", // ভারত National Internet Exchange of India
1343         "xn--80ao21a", // қаз Association of IT Companies of Kazakhstan
1344         "xn--90a3ac", // срб Serbian National Internet Domain Registry (RNIDS)
1345         "xn--90ais", // ??? Reliable Software Inc.
1346         "xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd", // சிங்கப்பூர் Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd
1347         "xn--d1alf", // мкд Macedonian Academic Research Network Skopje
1348         "xn--fiqs8s", // 中国 China Internet Network Information Center
1349         "xn--fiqz9s", // 中國 China Internet Network Information Center
1350         "xn--fpcrj9c3d", // భారత్ National Internet Exchange of India
1351         "xn--fzc2c9e2c", // ලංකා LK Domain Registry
1352         "xn--gecrj9c", // ભારત National Internet Exchange of India
1353         "xn--h2brj9c", // भारत National Internet Exchange of India
1354         "xn--j1amh", // укр Ukrainian Network Information Centre (UANIC), Inc.
1355         "xn--j6w193g", // 香港 Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Ltd.
1356         "xn--kprw13d", // 台湾 Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC)
1357         "xn--kpry57d", // 台灣 Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC)
1358         "xn--l1acc", // мон Datacom Co.,Ltd
1359         "xn--lgbbat1ad8j", // الجزائر CERIST
1360         "xn--mgb9awbf", // عمان Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA)
1361         "xn--mgba3a4f16a", // ایران Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM)
1362         "xn--mgbaam7a8h", // امارات Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA)
1363         "xn--mgbayh7gpa", // الاردن National Information Technology Center (NITC)
1364         "xn--mgbbh1a71e", // بھارت National Internet Exchange of India
1365         "xn--mgbc0a9azcg", // المغرب Agence Nationale de Réglementation des Télécommunications (ANRT)
1366         "xn--mgberp4a5d4ar", // السعودية Communications and Information Technology Commission
1367         "xn--mgbpl2fh", // ????? Sudan Internet Society
1368         "xn--mgbtx2b", // عراق Communications and Media Commission (CMC)
1369         "xn--mgbx4cd0ab", // مليسيا MYNIC Berhad
1370         "xn--node", // გე Information Technologies Development Center (ITDC)
1371         "xn--o3cw4h", // ไทย Thai Network Information Center Foundation
1372         "xn--ogbpf8fl", // سورية National Agency for Network Services (NANS)
1373         "xn--p1ai", // рф Coordination Center for TLD RU
1374         "xn--pgbs0dh", // تونس Agence Tunisienne d&#39;Internet
1375         "xn--qxam", // ελ ICS-FORTH GR
1376         "xn--s9brj9c", // ਭਾਰਤ National Internet Exchange of India
1377         "xn--wgbh1c", // مصر National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority - NTRA
1378         "xn--wgbl6a", // قطر Communications Regulatory Authority
1379         "xn--xkc2al3hye2a", // இலங்கை LK Domain Registry
1380         "xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h", // இந்தியா National Internet Exchange of India
1381         "xn--y9a3aq", // ??? Internet Society
1382         "xn--yfro4i67o", // 新加坡 Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd
1383         "xn--ygbi2ammx", // فلسطين Ministry of Telecom &amp; Information Technology (MTIT)
1384         "ye",                 // Yemen
1385         "yt",                 // Mayotte
1386         "za",                 // South Africa
1387         "zm",                 // Zambia
1388         "zw",                 // Zimbabwe
1389     };
1390 
1391     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1392     private static final String[] LOCAL_TLDS = new String[] {
1393        "localdomain",         // Also widely used as localhost.localdomain
1394        "localhost",           // RFC2606 defined
1395     };
1396 
1397     // Additional arrays to supplement or override the built in ones.
1398     // The PLUS arrays are valid keys, the MINUS arrays are invalid keys
1399 
1400     /*
1401      * This field is used to detect whether the getInstance has been called.
1402      * After this, the method updateTLDOverride is not allowed to be called.
1403      * This field does not need to be volatile since it is only accessed from
1404      * synchronized methods. 
1405      */
1406     private static boolean inUse = false;
1407 
1408     /*
1409      * These arrays are mutable, but they don't need to be volatile.
1410      * They can only be updated by the updateTLDOverride method, and any readers must get an instance
1411      * using the getInstance methods which are all (now) synchronised.
1412      */
1413     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1414     private static volatile String[] COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_PLUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1415 
1416     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1417     private static volatile String[] GENERIC_TLDS_PLUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1418 
1419     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1420     private static volatile String[] COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_MINUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1421 
1422     // WARNING: this array MUST be sorted, otherwise it cannot be searched reliably using binary search
1423     private static volatile String[] GENERIC_TLDS_MINUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1424 
1425     /**
1426      * enum used by {@link DomainValidator#updateTLDOverride(ArrayType, String[])}
1427      * to determine which override array to update.
1428      * @since 1.5.0
1429      */
1430     enum ArrayType {
1431         /** Update the GENERIC_TLDS_PLUS table containing additonal generic TLDs */
1432         GENERIC_PLUS,
1433         /** Update the GENERIC_TLDS_MINUS table containing deleted generic TLDs */
1434         GENERIC_MINUS,
1435         /** Update the COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_PLUS table containing additonal country code TLDs */
1436         COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS,
1437         /** Update the COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_MINUS table containing deleted country code TLDs */
1438         COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS;
1439     };
1440 
1441     // For use by unit test code only
1442     static synchronized void clearTLDOverrides() {
1443         inUse = false;
1444         COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_PLUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1445         COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_MINUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1446         GENERIC_TLDS_PLUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1447         GENERIC_TLDS_MINUS = EMPTY_STRING_ARRAY;
1448     }
1449     /**
1450      * Update one of the TLD override arrays.
1451      * This must only be done at program startup, before any instances are accessed using getInstance.
1452      * <p>
1453      * For example:
1454      * <p>
1455      * {@code DomainValidator.updateTLDOverride(ArrayType.GENERIC_PLUS, new String[]{"apache"})}
1456      * <p>
1457      * To clear an override array, provide an empty array.
1458      *
1459      * @param table the table to update, see {@link DomainValidator#ArrayType}
1460      * @param tlds the array of TLDs, must not be null
1461      * @throws IllegalStateException if the method is called after getInstance
1462      * @since 1.5.0
1463      */
1464     public static synchronized void updateTLDOverride(ArrayType table, String [] tlds) {
1465         if (inUse) {
1466             throw new IllegalStateException("Can only invoke this method before calling getInstance");
1467         }
1468         String [] copy = new String[tlds.length];
1469         // Comparisons are always done with lower-case entries
1470         for (int i = 0; i < tlds.length; i++) {
1471             copy[i] = tlds[i].toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
1472         }
1473         Arrays.sort(copy);
1474         switch(table) {
1475         case COUNTRY_CODE_MINUS:
1476             COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_MINUS = copy;
1477             break;
1478         case COUNTRY_CODE_PLUS:
1479             COUNTRY_CODE_TLDS_PLUS = copy;
1480             break;
1481         case GENERIC_MINUS:
1482             GENERIC_TLDS_MINUS = copy;
1483             break;
1484         case GENERIC_PLUS:
1485             GENERIC_TLDS_PLUS = copy;
1486             break;
1487         }
1488     }
1489 
1490     /**
1491      * Converts potentially Unicode input to punycode.
1492      * If conversion fails, returns the original input.
1493      * 
1494      * @param input the string to convert, not null
1495      * @return converted input, or original input if conversion fails
1496      */
1497     // Needed by UrlValidator
1498     static String unicodeToASCII(String input) {
1499         if (isOnlyASCII(input)) { // skip possibly expensive processing
1500             return input;
1501         }
1502         try {
1503             final String ascii = IDN.toASCII(input);
1504             if (IDNBUGHOLDER.IDN_TOASCII_PRESERVES_TRAILING_DOTS) {
1505                 return ascii;
1506             }
1507             final int length = input.length();
1508             if (length == 0) {// check there is a last character
1509                 return input;
1510             }
1511 // RFC3490 3.1. 1)
1512 //            Whenever dots are used as label separators, the following
1513 //            characters MUST be recognized as dots: U+002E (full stop), U+3002
1514 //            (ideographic full stop), U+FF0E (fullwidth full stop), U+FF61
1515 //            (halfwidth ideographic full stop).
1516             char lastChar = input.charAt(length-1);// fetch original last char
1517             switch(lastChar) {
1518                 case '\u002E': // "." full stop
1519                 case '\u3002': // ideographic full stop
1520                 case '\uFF0E': // fullwidth full stop
1521                 case '\uFF61': // halfwidth ideographic full stop
1522                     return ascii + "."; // restore the missing stop
1523                 default:
1524                     return ascii;
1525             }
1526         } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) { // input is not valid
1527             return input;
1528         }
1529     }
1530 
1531     private static class IDNBUGHOLDER {
1532         private static boolean keepsTrailingDot() {
1533             final String input = "a."; // must be a valid name
1534             return input.equals(IDN.toASCII(input));
1535         }
1536         private static final boolean IDN_TOASCII_PRESERVES_TRAILING_DOTS = keepsTrailingDot();
1537     }
1538 
1539     /*
1540      * Check if input contains only ASCII
1541      * Treats null as all ASCII
1542      */
1543     private static boolean isOnlyASCII(String input) {
1544         if (input == null) {
1545             return true;
1546         }
1547         for(int i=0; i < input.length(); i++) {
1548             if (input.charAt(i) > 0x7F) {
1549                 return false;
1550             }
1551         }
1552         return true;
1553     }
1554 
1555     /**
1556      * Check if a sorted array contains the specified key
1557      *
1558      * @param sortedArray the array to search
1559      * @param key the key to find
1560      * @return {@code true} if the array contains the key
1561      */
1562     private static boolean arrayContains(String[] sortedArray, String key) {
1563         return Arrays.binarySearch(sortedArray, key) >= 0;
1564     }
1565 }