org.apache.commons.io
Class DirectoryWalker

java.lang.Object
  extended by org.apache.commons.io.DirectoryWalker

public abstract class DirectoryWalker
extends Object

Abstract class that walks through a directory hierarchy and provides subclasses with convenient hooks to add specific behaviour.

This class operates with a FileFilter and maximum depth to limit the files and direcories visited. Commons IO supplies many common filter implementations in the filefilter package.

The following sections describe:

1. Example Implementation

There are many possible extensions, for example, to delete all files and '.svn' directories, and return a list of deleted files:
  public class FileCleaner extends DirectoryWalker {

    public FileCleaner() {
      super();
    }

    public List clean(File startDirectory) {
      List results = new ArrayList();
      walk(startDirectory, results);
      return results;
    }

    protected boolean handleDirectory(File directory, int depth, Collection results) {
      // delete svn directories and then skip
      if (".svn".equals(directory.getName())) {
        directory.delete();
        return false;
      } else {
        return true;
      }

    }

    protected void handleFile(File file, int depth, Collection results) {
      // delete file and add to list of deleted
      file.delete();
      results.add(file);
    }
  }
 

2. Filter Example

Choosing which directories and files to process can be a key aspect of using this class. This information can be setup in three ways, via three different constructors.

The first option is to visit all directories and files. This is achieved via the no-args constructor.

The second constructor option is to supply a single FileFilter that describes the files and directories to visit. Care must be taken with this option as the same filter is used for both directories and files.

For example, if you wanted all directories which are not hidden and files which end in ".txt":

  public class FooDirectoryWalker extends DirectoryWalker {
    public FooDirectoryWalker(FileFilter filter) {
      super(filter, -1);
    }
  }
  
  // Build up the filters and create the walker
    // Create a filter for Non-hidden directories
    IOFileFilter fooDirFilter = 
        FileFilterUtils.andFileFilter(FileFilterUtils.directoryFileFilter,
                                      HiddenFileFilter.VISIBLE);

    // Create a filter for Files ending in ".txt"
    IOFileFilter fooFileFilter = 
        FileFilterUtils.andFileFilter(FileFilterUtils.fileFileFilter,
                                      FileFilterUtils.suffixFileFilter(".txt"));

    // Combine the directory and file filters using an OR condition
    java.io.FileFilter fooFilter = 
        FileFilterUtils.orFileFilter(fooDirFilter, fooFileFilter);

    // Use the filter to construct a DirectoryWalker implementation
    FooDirectoryWalker walker = new FooDirectoryWalker(fooFilter);
 

The third constructor option is to specify separate filters, one for directories and one for files. These are combined internally to form the correct FileFilter, something which is very easy to get wrong when attempted manually, particularly when trying to express constructs like 'any file in directories named docs'.

For example, if you wanted all directories which are not hidden and files which end in ".txt":

  public class FooDirectoryWalker extends DirectoryWalker {
    public FooDirectoryWalker(IOFileFilter dirFilter, IOFileFilter fileFilter) {
      super(dirFilter, fileFilter, -1);
    }
  }
  
  // Use the filters to construct the walker
  FooDirectoryWalker walker = new FooDirectoryWalker(
    HiddenFileFilter.VISIBLE,
    FileFilterUtils.suffixFileFilter(".txt"),
  );
 
This is much simpler than the previous example, and is why it is the preferred option for filtering.

3. Cancellation

The DirectoryWalker contains some of the logic required for cancel processing. Subclasses must complete the implementation.

What DirectoryWalker does provide for cancellation is:

Implementations need to provide:

Two possible scenarios are envisaged for cancellation:

The following sections provide example implementations for these two different scenarios.

3.1 External / Multi-threaded

This example provides a public cancel() method that can be called by another thread to stop the processing. A typical example use-case would be a cancel button on a GUI. Calling this method sets a volatile flag to ensure it will work properly in a multi-threaded environment. The flag is returned by the handleIsCancelled() method, which will cause the walk to stop immediately. The handleCancelled() method will be the next, and last, callback method received once cancellation has occurred.
  public class FooDirectoryWalker extends DirectoryWalker {

    private volatile boolean cancelled = false;

    public void cancel() {
        cancelled = true;
    }

    private void handleIsCancelled(File file, int depth, Collection results) {
        return cancelled;
    }

    protected void handleCancelled(File startDirectory, Collection results, CancelException cancel) {
        // implement processing required when a cancellation occurs
    }
  }
 

3.2 Internal

This shows an example of how internal cancellation processing could be implemented. Note the decision logic and throwing a DirectoryWalker.CancelException could be implemented in any of the lifecycle methods.
  public class BarDirectoryWalker extends DirectoryWalker {

    protected boolean handleDirectory(File directory, int depth, Collection results) throws IOException {
        // cancel if hidden directory
        if (directory.isHidden()) {
            throw new CancelException(file, depth);
        }
        return true;
    }

    protected void handleFile(File file, int depth, Collection results) throws IOException {
        // cancel if read-only file
        if (!file.canWrite()) {
            throw new CancelException(file, depth);
        }
        results.add(file);
    }

    protected void handleCancelled(File startDirectory, Collection results, CancelException cancel) {
        // implement processing required when a cancellation occurs
    }
  }
 

Since:
Commons IO 1.3
Version:
$Revision: 424748 $

Nested Class Summary
static class DirectoryWalker.CancelException
          CancelException is thrown in DirectoryWalker to cancel the current processing.
 
Constructor Summary
protected DirectoryWalker()
          Construct an instance with no filtering and unlimited depth.
protected DirectoryWalker(FileFilter filter, int depthLimit)
          Construct an instance with a filter and limit the depth navigated to.
protected DirectoryWalker(IOFileFilter directoryFilter, IOFileFilter fileFilter, int depthLimit)
          Construct an instance with a directory and a file filter and an optional limit on the depth navigated to.
 
Method Summary
protected  void checkIfCancelled(File file, int depth, Collection results)
          Checks whether the walk has been cancelled by calling handleIsCancelled(java.io.File, int, java.util.Collection), throwing a CancelException if it has.
protected  void handleCancelled(File startDirectory, Collection results, DirectoryWalker.CancelException cancel)
          Overridable callback method invoked when the operation is cancelled.
protected  boolean handleDirectory(File directory, int depth, Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked to determine if a directory should be processed.
protected  void handleDirectoryEnd(File directory, int depth, Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked at the end of processing each directory.
protected  void handleDirectoryStart(File directory, int depth, Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked at the start of processing each directory.
protected  void handleEnd(Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked at the end of processing.
protected  void handleFile(File file, int depth, Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked for each (non-directory) file.
protected  boolean handleIsCancelled(File file, int depth, Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked to determine if the entire walk operation should be immediately cancelled.
protected  void handleRestricted(File directory, int depth, Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked for each restricted directory.
protected  void handleStart(File startDirectory, Collection results)
          Overridable callback method invoked at the start of processing.
protected  void walk(File startDirectory, Collection results)
          Internal method that walks the directory hierarchy in a depth-first manner.
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
 

Constructor Detail

DirectoryWalker

protected DirectoryWalker()
Construct an instance with no filtering and unlimited depth.


DirectoryWalker

protected DirectoryWalker(FileFilter filter,
                          int depthLimit)
Construct an instance with a filter and limit the depth navigated to.

The filter controls which files and directories will be navigated to as part of the walk. The FileFilterUtils class is useful for combining various filters together. A null filter means that no filtering should occur and all files and directories will be visited.

Parameters:
filter - the filter to apply, null means visit all files
depthLimit - controls how deep the hierarchy is navigated to (less than 0 means unlimited)

DirectoryWalker

protected DirectoryWalker(IOFileFilter directoryFilter,
                          IOFileFilter fileFilter,
                          int depthLimit)
Construct an instance with a directory and a file filter and an optional limit on the depth navigated to.

The filters control which files and directories will be navigated to as part of the walk. This constructor uses FileFilterUtils.makeDirectoryOnly(IOFileFilter) and FileFilterUtils.makeFileOnly(IOFileFilter) internally to combine the filters. A null filter means that no filtering should occur.

Parameters:
directoryFilter - the filter to apply to directories, null means visit all directories
fileFilter - the filter to apply to files, null means visit all files
depthLimit - controls how deep the hierarchy is navigated to (less than 0 means unlimited)
Method Detail

walk

protected final void walk(File startDirectory,
                          Collection results)
                   throws IOException
Internal method that walks the directory hierarchy in a depth-first manner.

Users of this class do not need to call this method. This method will be called automatically by another (public) method on the specific subclass.

Writers of subclasses should call this method to start the directory walk. Once called, this method will emit events as it walks the hierarchy. The event methods have the prefix handle.

Parameters:
startDirectory - the directory to start from, not null
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
NullPointerException - if the start directory is null
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

checkIfCancelled

protected final void checkIfCancelled(File file,
                                      int depth,
                                      Collection results)
                               throws IOException
Checks whether the walk has been cancelled by calling handleIsCancelled(java.io.File, int, java.util.Collection), throwing a CancelException if it has.

Writers of subclasses should not normally call this method as it is called automatically by the walk of the tree. However, sometimes a single method, typically handleFile(java.io.File, int, java.util.Collection), may take a long time to run. In that case, you may wish to check for cancellation by calling this method.

Parameters:
file - the current file being processed
depth - the current file level (starting directory = 0)
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleIsCancelled

protected boolean handleIsCancelled(File file,
                                    int depth,
                                    Collection results)
                             throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked to determine if the entire walk operation should be immediately cancelled.

This method should be implemented by those subclasses that want to provide a public cancel() method available from another thread. The design pattern for the subclass should be as follows:

  public class FooDirectoryWalker extends DirectoryWalker {
    private volatile boolean cancelled = false;

    public void cancel() {
        cancelled = true;
    }
    private void handleIsCancelled(File file, int depth, Collection results) {
        return cancelled;
    }
    protected void handleCancelled(File startDirectory,
              Collection results, CancelException cancel) {
        // implement processing required when a cancellation occurs
    }
  }
 

If this method returns true, then the directory walk is immediately cancelled. The next callback method will be handleCancelled(java.io.File, java.util.Collection, org.apache.commons.io.DirectoryWalker.CancelException).

This implementation returns false.

Parameters:
file - the file or directory being processed
depth - the current directory level (starting directory = 0)
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Returns:
true if the walk has been cancelled
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleCancelled

protected void handleCancelled(File startDirectory,
                               Collection results,
                               DirectoryWalker.CancelException cancel)
                        throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked when the operation is cancelled. The file being processed when the cancellation occurred can be obtained from the exception.

This implementation just re-throws the DirectoryWalker.CancelException.

Parameters:
startDirectory - the directory that the walk started from
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
cancel - the exception throw to cancel further processing containing details at the point of cancellation.
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleStart

protected void handleStart(File startDirectory,
                           Collection results)
                    throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked at the start of processing.

This implementation does nothing.

Parameters:
startDirectory - the directory to start from
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleDirectory

protected boolean handleDirectory(File directory,
                                  int depth,
                                  Collection results)
                           throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked to determine if a directory should be processed.

This method returns a boolean to indicate if the directory should be examined or not. If you return false, the entire directory and any subdirectories will be skipped. Note that this functionality is in addition to the filtering by file filter.

This implementation does nothing and returns true.

Parameters:
directory - the current directory being processed
depth - the current directory level (starting directory = 0)
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Returns:
true to process this directory, false to skip this directory
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleDirectoryStart

protected void handleDirectoryStart(File directory,
                                    int depth,
                                    Collection results)
                             throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked at the start of processing each directory.

This implementation does nothing.

Parameters:
directory - the current directory being processed
depth - the current directory level (starting directory = 0)
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleFile

protected void handleFile(File file,
                          int depth,
                          Collection results)
                   throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked for each (non-directory) file.

This implementation does nothing.

Parameters:
file - the current file being processed
depth - the current directory level (starting directory = 0)
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleRestricted

protected void handleRestricted(File directory,
                                int depth,
                                Collection results)
                         throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked for each restricted directory.

This implementation does nothing.

Parameters:
directory - the restricted directory
depth - the current directory level (starting directory = 0)
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleDirectoryEnd

protected void handleDirectoryEnd(File directory,
                                  int depth,
                                  Collection results)
                           throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked at the end of processing each directory.

This implementation does nothing.

Parameters:
directory - the directory being processed
depth - the current directory level (starting directory = 0)
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs

handleEnd

protected void handleEnd(Collection results)
                  throws IOException
Overridable callback method invoked at the end of processing.

This implementation does nothing.

Parameters:
results - the collection of result objects, may be updated
Throws:
IOException - if an I/O Error occurs


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