org.apache.commons.lang.builder
Class HashCodeBuilder

java.lang.Object
  extended byorg.apache.commons.lang.builder.HashCodeBuilder

public class HashCodeBuilder
extends java.lang.Object

Assists in implementing Object.hashCode() methods.

This class enables a good hashCode method to be built for any class. It follows the rules laid out in the book Effective Java by Joshua Bloch. Writing a good hashCode method is actually quite difficult. This class aims to simplify the process.

All relevant fields from the object should be included in the hashCode method. Derived fields may be excluded. In general, any field used in the equals method must be used in the hashCode method.

To use this class write code as follows:

 public class Person {
   String name;
   int age;
   boolean smoker;
   ...

   public int hashCode() {
     // you pick a hard-coded, randomly chosen, non-zero, odd number
     // ideally different for each class
     return new HashCodeBuilder(17, 37).
       append(name).
       append(age).
       append(smoker).
       toHashCode();
   }
 }
 

If required, the superclass hashCode() can be added using appendSuper(int).

Alternatively, there is a method that uses reflection to determine the fields to test. Because these fields are usually private, the method, reflectionHashCode, uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to change the visibility of the fields. This will fail under a security manager, unless the appropriate permissions are set up correctly. It is also slower than testing explicitly.

A typical invocation for this method would look like:

 public int hashCode() {
   return HashCodeBuilder.reflectionHashCode(this);
 }
 

Since:
1.0
Version:
$Id: HashCodeBuilder.java 564070 2007-08-09 01:58:11Z bayard $
Author:
Stephen Colebourne, Gary Gregory, Pete Gieser

Constructor Summary
HashCodeBuilder()
           Uses two hard coded choices for the constants needed to build a hashCode.
HashCodeBuilder(int initialNonZeroOddNumber, int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber)
           Two randomly chosen, non-zero, odd numbers must be passed in.
 
Method Summary
 HashCodeBuilder append(boolean value)
           Append a hashCode for a boolean.
 HashCodeBuilder append(boolean[] array)
           Append a hashCode for a boolean array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(byte value)
           Append a hashCode for a byte.
 HashCodeBuilder append(byte[] array)
           Append a hashCode for a byte array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(char value)
           Append a hashCode for a char.
 HashCodeBuilder append(char[] array)
           Append a hashCode for a char array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(double value)
           Append a hashCode for a double.
 HashCodeBuilder append(double[] array)
           Append a hashCode for a double array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(float value)
           Append a hashCode for a float.
 HashCodeBuilder append(float[] array)
           Append a hashCode for a float array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(int value)
           Append a hashCode for an int.
 HashCodeBuilder append(int[] array)
           Append a hashCode for an int array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(long value)
           Append a hashCode for a long.
 HashCodeBuilder append(long[] array)
           Append a hashCode for a long array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(java.lang.Object object)
           Append a hashCode for an Object.
 HashCodeBuilder append(java.lang.Object[] array)
           Append a hashCode for an Object array.
 HashCodeBuilder append(short value)
           Append a hashCode for a short.
 HashCodeBuilder append(short[] array)
           Append a hashCode for a short array.
 HashCodeBuilder appendSuper(int superHashCode)
           Adds the result of super.hashCode() to this builder.
static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber, int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber, java.lang.Object object)
           This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.
static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber, int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber, java.lang.Object object, boolean testTransients)
           This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.
static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber, int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber, java.lang.Object object, boolean testTransients, java.lang.Class reflectUpToClass)
          Calls reflectionHashCode(int, int, Object, boolean, Class, String[]) with excludeFields set to null.
static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber, int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber, java.lang.Object object, boolean testTransients, java.lang.Class reflectUpToClass, java.lang.String[] excludeFields)
           This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.
static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object)
           This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.
static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object, boolean testTransients)
           This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.
static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object, java.util.Collection excludeFields)
           This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.
static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object, java.lang.String[] excludeFields)
           This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.
 int toHashCode()
           Return the computed hashCode.
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
 

Constructor Detail

HashCodeBuilder

public HashCodeBuilder()

Uses two hard coded choices for the constants needed to build a hashCode.


HashCodeBuilder

public HashCodeBuilder(int initialNonZeroOddNumber,
                       int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber)

Two randomly chosen, non-zero, odd numbers must be passed in. Ideally these should be different for each class, however this is not vital.

Prime numbers are preferred, especially for the multiplier.

Parameters:
initialNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the initial value
multiplierNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the multiplier
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the number is zero or even
Method Detail

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     java.lang.Object object)

This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.

It uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to gain access to private fields. This means that it will throw a security exception if run under a security manager, if the permissions are not set up correctly. It is also not as efficient as testing explicitly.

Transient members will be not be used, as they are likely derived fields, and not part of the value of the Object.

Static fields will not be tested. Superclass fields will be included.

Two randomly chosen, non-zero, odd numbers must be passed in. Ideally these should be different for each class, however this is not vital. Prime numbers are preferred, especially for the multiplier.

Parameters:
initialNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the initial value
multiplierNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the multiplier
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
Returns:
int hash code
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the Object is null
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the number is zero or even

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     java.lang.Object object,
                                     boolean testTransients)

This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.

It uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to gain access to private fields. This means that it will throw a security exception if run under a security manager, if the permissions are not set up correctly. It is also not as efficient as testing explicitly.

If the TestTransients parameter is set to true, transient members will be tested, otherwise they are ignored, as they are likely derived fields, and not part of the value of the Object.

Static fields will not be tested. Superclass fields will be included.

Two randomly chosen, non-zero, odd numbers must be passed in. Ideally these should be different for each class, however this is not vital. Prime numbers are preferred, especially for the multiplier.

Parameters:
initialNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the initial value
multiplierNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the multiplier
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
testTransients - whether to include transient fields
Returns:
int hash code
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the Object is null
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the number is zero or even

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     java.lang.Object object,
                                     boolean testTransients,
                                     java.lang.Class reflectUpToClass)
Calls reflectionHashCode(int, int, Object, boolean, Class, String[]) with excludeFields set to null.

Parameters:
initialNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the initial value
multiplierNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the multiplier
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
testTransients - whether to include transient fields
reflectUpToClass - the superclass to reflect up to (inclusive), may be null
Returns:
int hash code

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(int initialNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     int multiplierNonZeroOddNumber,
                                     java.lang.Object object,
                                     boolean testTransients,
                                     java.lang.Class reflectUpToClass,
                                     java.lang.String[] excludeFields)

This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.

It uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to gain access to private fields. This means that it will throw a security exception if run under a security manager, if the permissions are not set up correctly. It is also not as efficient as testing explicitly.

If the TestTransients parameter is set to true, transient members will be tested, otherwise they are ignored, as they are likely derived fields, and not part of the value of the Object.

Static fields will not be included. Superclass fields will be included up to and including the specified superclass. A null superclass is treated as java.lang.Object.

Two randomly chosen, non-zero, odd numbers must be passed in. Ideally these should be different for each class, however this is not vital. Prime numbers are preferred, especially for the multiplier.

Parameters:
initialNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the initial value
multiplierNonZeroOddNumber - a non-zero, odd number used as the multiplier
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
testTransients - whether to include transient fields
reflectUpToClass - the superclass to reflect up to (inclusive), may be null
excludeFields - array of field names to exclude from use in calculation of hash code
Returns:
int hash code
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the Object is null
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the number is zero or even
Since:
2.0

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object)

This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.

This constructor uses two hard coded choices for the constants needed to build a hash code.

It uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to gain access to private fields. This means that it will throw a security exception if run under a security manager, if the permissions are not set up correctly. It is also not as efficient as testing explicitly.

Transient members will be not be used, as they are likely derived fields, and not part of the value of the Object.

Static fields will not be tested. Superclass fields will be included.

Parameters:
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
Returns:
int hash code
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the object is null

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object,
                                     boolean testTransients)

This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.

This constructor uses two hard coded choices for the constants needed to build a hash code.

It uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to gain access to private fields. This means that it will throw a security exception if run under a security manager, if the permissions are not set up correctly. It is also not as efficient as testing explicitly.

If the TestTransients parameter is set to true, transient members will be tested, otherwise they are ignored, as they are likely derived fields, and not part of the value of the Object.

Static fields will not be tested. Superclass fields will be included.

Parameters:
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
testTransients - whether to include transient fields
Returns:
int hash code
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the object is null

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object,
                                     java.util.Collection excludeFields)

This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.

This constructor uses two hard coded choices for the constants needed to build a hash code.

It uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to gain access to private fields. This means that it will throw a security exception if run under a security manager, if the permissions are not set up correctly. It is also not as efficient as testing explicitly.

Transient members will be not be used, as they are likely derived fields, and not part of the value of the Object.

Static fields will not be tested. Superclass fields will be included.

Parameters:
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
excludeFields - Collection of String field names to exclude from use in calculation of hash code
Returns:
int hash code
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the object is null

reflectionHashCode

public static int reflectionHashCode(java.lang.Object object,
                                     java.lang.String[] excludeFields)

This method uses reflection to build a valid hash code.

This constructor uses two hard coded choices for the constants needed to build a hash code.

It uses AccessibleObject.setAccessible to gain access to private fields. This means that it will throw a security exception if run under a security manager, if the permissions are not set up correctly. It is also not as efficient as testing explicitly.

Transient members will be not be used, as they are likely derived fields, and not part of the value of the Object.

Static fields will not be tested. Superclass fields will be included.

Parameters:
object - the Object to create a hashCode for
excludeFields - array of field names to exclude from use in calculation of hash code
Returns:
int hash code
Throws:
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException - if the object is null

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(boolean value)

Append a hashCode for a boolean.

This adds iConstant * 1 to the hashCode and not a 1231 or 1237 as done in java.lang.Boolean. This is in accordance with the Effective Java design.

Parameters:
value - the boolean to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(boolean[] array)

Append a hashCode for a boolean array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(byte value)

Append a hashCode for a byte.

Parameters:
value - the byte to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(byte[] array)

Append a hashCode for a byte array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(char value)

Append a hashCode for a char.

Parameters:
value - the char to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(char[] array)

Append a hashCode for a char array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(double value)

Append a hashCode for a double.

Parameters:
value - the double to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(double[] array)

Append a hashCode for a double array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(float value)

Append a hashCode for a float.

Parameters:
value - the float to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(float[] array)

Append a hashCode for a float array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(int value)

Append a hashCode for an int.

Parameters:
value - the int to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(int[] array)

Append a hashCode for an int array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(long value)

Append a hashCode for a long.

Parameters:
value - the long to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(long[] array)

Append a hashCode for a long array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(java.lang.Object object)

Append a hashCode for an Object.

Parameters:
object - the Object to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(java.lang.Object[] array)

Append a hashCode for an Object array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(short value)

Append a hashCode for a short.

Parameters:
value - the short to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

append

public HashCodeBuilder append(short[] array)

Append a hashCode for a short array.

Parameters:
array - the array to add to the hashCode
Returns:
this

appendSuper

public HashCodeBuilder appendSuper(int superHashCode)

Adds the result of super.hashCode() to this builder.

Parameters:
superHashCode - the result of calling super.hashCode()
Returns:
this HashCodeBuilder, used to chain calls.
Since:
2.0

toHashCode

public int toHashCode()

Return the computed hashCode.

Returns:
hashCode based on the fields appended


Copyright 2001-2008 The Apache Software Foundation. All Rights Reserved.