Class 
Description 
Abs 
Absolute value function.

AbstractConvergenceChecker<PAIR> 
Base class for all convergence checker implementations.

AbstractCurveFitter 
Base class that contains common code for fitting parametric univariate
real functions y = f(p_{i};x) , where x is
the independent variable and the p_{i} are the
parameters.

AbstractCurveFitter.TheoreticalValuesFunction 
Vector function for computing function theoretical values.

AbstractEvaluation 

AbstractFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
Base class managing common boilerplate for all integrators.

AbstractFieldMatrix<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Basic implementation of FieldMatrix methods regardless of the underlying storage.

AbstractFieldStepInterpolator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This abstract class represents an interpolator over the last step
during an ODE integration.

AbstractIntegerDistribution 
Base class for integervalued discrete distributions.

AbstractIntegrator 
Base class managing common boilerplate for all integrators.

AbstractListChromosome<T> 
Chromosome represented by an immutable list of a fixed length.

AbstractMultipleLinearRegression 
Abstract base class for implementations of MultipleLinearRegression.

AbstractMultivariateRealDistribution 
Base class for multivariate probability distributions.

AbstractOptimizationProblem<PAIR> 
Base class for implementing optimization problems.

AbstractParameterizable 
This abstract class provides boilerplate parameters list.

AbstractPolynomialSolver 
Base class for solvers.

AbstractRealDistribution 
Base class for probability distributions on the reals.

AbstractRealMatrix 
Basic implementation of RealMatrix methods regardless of the underlying storage.

AbstractStepInterpolator 
This abstract class represents an interpolator over the last step
during an ODE integration.

AbstractStorelessUnivariateStatistic 

AbstractUnivariateDifferentiableSolver 
Provide a default implementation for several functions useful to generic
solvers.

AbstractUnivariateSolver 
Base class for solvers.

AbstractUnivariateStatistic 

AccurateMath 

Acos 
Arccosine function.

Acosh 
Hyperbolic arccosine function.

Action 
Enumerate for actions to be performed when an event occurs during ODE integration.

AdamsBashforthFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements explicit AdamsBashforth integrators for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

AdamsBashforthIntegrator 
This class implements explicit AdamsBashforth integrators for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

AdamsFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 

AdamsIntegrator 

AdamsMoultonFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements implicit AdamsMoulton integrators for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

AdamsMoultonIntegrator 
This class implements implicit AdamsMoulton integrators for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

AdamsNordsieckFieldTransformer<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
Transformer to Nordsieck vectors for Adams integrators.

AdamsNordsieckTransformer 
Transformer to Nordsieck vectors for Adams integrators.

AdaptiveStepsizeFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This abstract class holds the common part of all adaptive
stepsize integrators for Ordinary Differential Equations.

AdaptiveStepsizeIntegrator 
This abstract class holds the common part of all adaptive
stepsize integrators for Ordinary Differential Equations.

Add 
Add the two operands.

AggregateSummaryStatistics 
An aggregator for SummaryStatistics from several data sets or
data set partitions.

AgrestiCoullInterval 
Implements the AgrestiCoull method for creating a binomial proportion confidence interval.

AkimaSplineInterpolator 
Computes a cubic spline interpolation for the data set using the Akima
algorithm, as originally formulated by Hiroshi Akima in his 1970 paper
"A New Method of Interpolation and Smooth Curve Fitting Based on Local Procedures."
J.

AllowedSolution 

AlternativeHypothesis 
Represents an alternative hypothesis for a hypothesis test.

AnyMatrix 
Interface defining very basic matrix operations.

ArgUtils 
Utility class for transforming the list of arguments passed to
constructors of exceptions.

Array2DRowFieldMatrix<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Implementation of FieldMatrix<T> using a FieldElement [][] array to store entries.

Array2DRowRealMatrix 
Implementation of RealMatrix using a double[][] array to
store entries.

ArrayFieldVector<T extends FieldElement<T>> 

ArrayRealVector 
This class implements the RealVector interface with a double array.

Asin 
Arcsine function.

Asinh 
Hyperbolic arcsine function.

Atan 
Arctangent function.

Atan2 
Arctangent function.

Atanh 
Hyperbolic arctangent function.

BaseAbstractUnivariateIntegrator 
Provide a default implementation for several generic functions.

BaseAbstractUnivariateSolver<FUNC extends UnivariateFunction> 
Provide a default implementation for several functions useful to generic
solvers.

BaseMultiStartMultivariateOptimizer<PAIR> 
Base class multistart optimizer for a multivariate function.

BaseMultivariateOptimizer<PAIR> 
Base class for implementing optimizers for multivariate functions.

BaseOptimizer<PAIR> 
Base class for implementing optimizers.

BaseRuleFactory<T extends Number> 
Base class for rules that determines the integration nodes and their
weights.

BaseSecantSolver 
Base class for all bracketing Secantbased methods for rootfinding
(approximating a zero of a univariate real function).

BaseSecantSolver.Method 
Secantbased rootfinding methods.

BaseUnivariateSolver<FUNC extends UnivariateFunction> 
Interface for (univariate real) rootfinding algorithms.

BesselJ 
This class provides computation methods related to Bessel
functions of the first kind.

BesselJ.BesselJResult 

BicubicInterpolatingFunction 

BicubicInterpolator 

BigReal 
Arbitrary precision decimal number.

BigRealField 
Representation of real numbers with arbitrary precision field.

BinaryChromosome 
Chromosome represented by a vector of 0s and 1s.

BinaryMutation 

BinomialConfidenceInterval 
Interface to generate confidence intervals for a binomial proportion.

BinomialTest 
Implements binomial test statistics.

BisectionSolver 

BivariateFunction 
An interface representing a bivariate real function.

BivariateGridInterpolator 
Interface representing a bivariate real interpolating function where the
sample points must be specified on a regular grid.

BlockFieldMatrix<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Cachefriendly implementation of FieldMatrix using a flat arrays to store
square blocks of the matrix.

BlockRealMatrix 
Cachefriendly implementation of RealMatrix using a flat arrays to store
square blocks of the matrix.

BOBYQAOptimizer 
Powell's BOBYQA algorithm.

BracketedRealFieldUnivariateSolver<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 

BracketedUnivariateSolver<FUNC extends UnivariateFunction> 

BracketFinder 
Provide an interval that brackets a local optimum of a function.

BracketingNthOrderBrentSolver 

BrentOptimizer 
For a function defined on some interval (lo, hi) , this class
finds an approximation x to the point at which the function
attains its minimum.

BrentSolver 
This class implements the
Brent algorithm for finding zeros of real univariate functions.

CalinskiHarabasz 
Compute the Calinski and Harabasz score.

CanberraDistance 
Calculates the Canberra distance between two points.

Cbrt 
Cube root function.

Ceil 
ceil function.

CentralPivotingStrategy 
A mid point strategy based on the average of begin and end indices.

CentroidCluster<T extends Clusterable> 
A Cluster used by centroidbased clustering algorithms.

ChebyshevDistance 
Calculates the L_{∞} (max of abs) distance between two points.

ChiSquareTest 
Implements ChiSquare test statistics.

CholeskyDecomposition 
Calculates the Cholesky decomposition of a matrix.

Chromosome 
Individual in a population.

ChromosomePair 

ClampedSplineInterpolator 
Computes a clamped cubic spline interpolation for the data set.

ClassicalRungeKuttaFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the classical fourth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations (it is the most
often used RungeKutta method).

ClassicalRungeKuttaIntegrator 
This class implements the classical fourth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations (it is the most
often used RungeKutta method).

ClopperPearsonInterval 
Implements the ClopperPearson method for creating a binomial proportion confidence interval.

Cluster<T extends Clusterable> 

Clusterable 
Interface for ndimensional points that can be clustered together.

Clusterer<T extends Clusterable> 
Base class for clustering algorithms.

ClusterEvaluator 
Defines a measure of the quality of clusters.

ClusterRanking 
Evaluates the quality of a set of clusters.

CMAESOptimizer 
An implementation of the active Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMAES)
for nonlinear, nonconvex, nonsmooth, global function minimization.

ComplexFormat 
Formats a Complex number in cartesian format "Re(c) + Im(c)i".

ComplexTransform 
Complex transform.

CompositeFormat 
Base class for formatters of composite objects (complex numbers, vectors ...).

ConfidenceInterval 
Represents an interval estimate of a population parameter.

ConjugateGradient 

Constant 
Constant function.

ContinuousOutputFieldModel<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class stores all information provided by an ODE integrator
during the integration process and build a continuous model of the
solution from this.

ContinuousOutputModel 
This class stores all information provided by an ODE integrator
during the integration process and build a continuous model of the
solution from this.

ConvergenceChecker<PAIR> 
This interface specifies how to check if an optimization algorithm has
converged.

ConvergenceException 
Error thrown when a numerical computation can not be performed because the
numerical result failed to converge to a finite value.

CorrelatedVectorFactory 
Generates vectors with with correlated components.

Cos 
Cosine function.

Cosh 
Hyperbolic cosine function.

Covariance 
Computes covariances for pairs of arrays or columns of a matrix.

CrossoverPolicy 
Policy used to create a pair of new chromosomes by performing a crossover
operation on a source pair of chromosomes.

CycleCrossover<T> 
Cycle Crossover [CX] builds offspring from ordered chromosomes by identifying cycles
between two parent chromosomes.

DBSCANClusterer<T extends Clusterable> 
DBSCAN (densitybased spatial clustering of applications with noise) algorithm.

DecompositionSolver 
Interface handling decomposition algorithms that can solve A × X = B.

DefaultFieldMatrixChangingVisitor<T extends FieldElement<T>> 

DefaultFieldMatrixPreservingVisitor<T extends FieldElement<T>> 

DefaultIterativeLinearSolverEvent 

DefaultMeasurementModel 

DefaultProcessModel 

DefaultRealMatrixChangingVisitor 

DefaultRealMatrixPreservingVisitor 

DerivativeStructure 
Class representing both the value and the differentials of a function.

DescriptiveStatistics 
Maintains a dataset of values of a single variable and computes descriptive
statistics based on stored data.

Dfp 
Decimal floating point library for Java

DfpDec 
Subclass of Dfp which hides the radix10000 artifacts of the superclass.

DfpField 
Field for Decimal floating point instances.

DfpField.RoundingMode 
Enumerate for rounding modes.

DfpMath 
Mathematical routines for use with Dfp .

DiagonalMatrix 
Implementation of a diagonal matrix.

DifferentiatorVectorMultivariateJacobianFunction 
A MultivariateJacobianFunction (a thing that requires a derivative)
combined with the thing that can find derivatives.

DimensionMismatchException 
Exception to be thrown when two dimensions differ.

DistanceMeasure 
Interface for distance measures of ndimensional vectors.

DistanceMeasure 
Interface for distance measures between two ndimensional vectors.

Divide 
Divide the first operand by the second.

DividedDifferenceInterpolator 

DormandPrince54FieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the 5(4) DormandPrince integrator for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

DormandPrince54Integrator 
This class implements the 5(4) DormandPrince integrator for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

DormandPrince853FieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the 8(5,3) DormandPrince integrator for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

DormandPrince853Integrator 
This class implements the 8(5,3) DormandPrince integrator for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

DoublePoint 
A simple implementation of Clusterable for points with double coordinates.

DSCompiler 
Class holding "compiled" computation rules for derivative structures.

DummyLocalizable 
Dummy implementation of the Localizable interface, without localization.

DummyStepHandler 
This class is a step handler that does nothing.

EarthMoversDistance 
Calculates the Earh Mover's distance (also known as Wasserstein metric) between two distributions.

EigenDecomposition 
Calculates the eigen decomposition of a real matrix.

ElitisticListPopulation 
Population of chromosomes which uses elitism (certain percentage of the best
chromosomes is directly copied to the next generation).

ElkanKMeansPlusPlusClusterer<T extends Clusterable> 
Implementation of kmeans++ algorithm.

EmbeddedRungeKuttaFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the common part of all embedded RungeKutta
integrators for Ordinary Differential Equations.

EmbeddedRungeKuttaIntegrator 
This class implements the common part of all embedded RungeKutta
integrators for Ordinary Differential Equations.

EmpiricalDistribution 
Represents an
empirical probability distribution: Probability distribution derived
from observed data without making any assumptions about the functional
form of the population distribution that the data come from.

EnumeratedDistribution<T> 

EnumeratedIntegerDistribution 

EnumeratedRealDistribution 

EquationsMapper 
Class mapping the part of a complete state or derivative that pertains
to a specific differential equation.

EuclideanDistance 
Calculates the L_{2} (Euclidean) distance between two points.

EuclideanDistance 
Euclidean distance measures of ndimensional vectors.

EulerFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements a simple Euler integrator for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

EulerIntegrator 
This class implements a simple Euler integrator for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

EvaluationRmsChecker 
Check if an optimization has converged based on the change in computed RMS.

EventFilter 
Wrapper used to detect only increasing or decreasing events.

EventHandler 
This interface represents a handler for discrete events triggered
during ODE integration.

EventHandler.Action 
Enumerate for actions to be performed when an event occurs.

EventState 
This class handles the state for one event handler during integration steps.

ExceptionContext 
Class that contains the actual implementation of the functionality mandated
by the ExceptionContext interface.

ExceptionContextProvider 
Interface for accessing the context data structure stored in Commons Math
exceptions.

Exp 
Exponential function.

ExpandableStatefulODE 
This class represents a combined set of first order differential equations,
with at least a primary set of equations expandable by some sets of secondary
equations.

Expm1 
e^{x}1 function.

ExponentialDecayFunction 
Exponential decay function: a e^{x / b} ,
where x is the (integer) independent variable.

FastCosineTransform 
Implements the Fast Cosine Transform for transformation of onedimensional
real data sets.

FastCosineTransform.Norm 
Normalization types.

FastFourierTransform 
Implements the Fast Fourier Transform for transformation of onedimensional
real or complex data sets.

FastFourierTransform.Norm 
Normalization types.

FastHadamardTransform 

FastSineTransform 
Implements the Fast Sine Transform for transformation of onedimensional real
data sets.

FastSineTransform.Norm 
Normalization types.

FeatureInitializer 
Defines how to assign the first value of a neuron's feature.

FeatureInitializerFactory 
Creates functions that will select the initial values of a neuron's
features.

Field<T> 
Interface representing a field.

FieldBracketingNthOrderBrentSolver<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 

FieldButcherArrayProvider<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface represents an integrator based on Butcher arrays.

FieldDecompositionSolver<T> 
Interface handling decomposition algorithms that can solve A X = B .

FieldDecompositionSolver<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Interface handling decomposition algorithms that can solve A × X = B.

FieldDenseMatrix<T> 
Square matrix whose elements define a Field .

FieldElement<T> 
Interface representing field elements.

FieldEquationsMapper<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
Class mapping the part of a complete state or derivative that pertains
to a set of differential equations.

FieldEventHandler<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface represents a handler for discrete events triggered
during ODE integration.

FieldEventState<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class handles the state for one event handler during integration steps.

FieldExpandableODE<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class represents a combined set of first order differential equations,
with at least a primary set of equations expandable by some sets of secondary
equations.

FieldFixedStepHandler<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface represents a handler that should be called after
each successful fixed step.

FieldHermiteInterpolator<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Polynomial interpolator using both sample values and sample derivatives.

FieldLUDecomposition<T> 
Calculates the LUPdecomposition of a square matrix.

FieldLUDecomposition<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Calculates the LUPdecomposition of a square matrix.

FieldMatrix<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Interface defining fieldvalued matrix with basic algebraic operations.

FieldMatrixChangingVisitor<T extends FieldElement<?>> 
Interface defining a visitor for matrix entries.

FieldMatrixPreservingVisitor<T extends FieldElement<?>> 
Interface defining a visitor for matrix entries.

FieldODEState<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
Container for time, main and secondary state vectors.

FieldODEStateAndDerivative<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
Container for time, main and secondary state vectors as well as their derivatives.

FieldSecondaryEquations<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface allows users to add secondary differential equations to a primary
set of differential equations.

FieldStepHandler<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface represents a handler that should be called after
each successful step.

FieldStepInterpolator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface represents an interpolator over the last step
during an ODE integration.

FieldStepNormalizer<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 

FieldVector<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Interface defining a fieldvalued vector with basic algebraic operations.

FieldVectorChangingVisitor<T extends FieldElement<?>> 
This interface defines a visitor for the entries of a vector.

FieldVectorPreservingVisitor<T extends FieldElement<?>> 
This interface defines a visitor for the entries of a vector.

FilterType 

FiniteDifferencesDifferentiator 
Univariate functions differentiator using finite differences.

FirstOrderConverter 
This class converts second order differential equations to first
order ones.

FirstOrderDifferentialEquations 
This interface represents a first order differential equations set.

FirstOrderFieldDifferentialEquations<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface represents a first order differential equations set.

FirstOrderFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This interface represents a first order integrator for
differential equations.

FirstOrderIntegrator 
This interface represents a first order integrator for
differential equations.

Fitness 
Fitness of a chromosome.

FixedElapsedTime 
Stops after a fixed amount of time has elapsed.

FixedGenerationCount 
Stops after a fixed number of generations.

FixedStepHandler 
This interface represents a handler that should be called after
each successful fixed step.

Floor 
floor function.

Frequency<T extends Comparable<T>> 
Maintains a frequency distribution.

FunctionUtils 
Utilities for manipulating function objects.

FuzzyKMeansClusterer<T extends Clusterable> 
Fuzzy KMeans clustering algorithm.

Gaussian 

Gaussian.Parametric 
Parametric function where the input array contains the parameters of
the Gaussian.

GaussianCurveFitter 

GaussianCurveFitter.ParameterGuesser 
Guesses the parameters norm , mean , and sigma
of a Gaussian.Parametric
based on the specified observed points.

GaussIntegrator 
Class that implements the Gaussian rule for
integrating a weighted
function.

GaussIntegratorFactory 

GaussNewtonOptimizer 
GaussNewton leastsquares solver.

GaussNewtonOptimizer.Decomposition 
The decomposition algorithm to use to solve the normal equations.

GeneticAlgorithm 
Implementation of a genetic algorithm.

GeometricMean 

GillFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the Gill fourth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations .

GillIntegrator 
This class implements the Gill fourth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations .

GLSMultipleLinearRegression 
The GLS implementation of multiple linear regression.

GoalType 
Goal type for an optimization problem (minimization or maximization of
a scalar function.

GradientFunction 
Class representing the gradient of a multivariate function.

GradientMultivariateOptimizer 
Base class for implementing optimizers for multivariate scalar
differentiable functions.

GraggBulirschStoerIntegrator 
This class implements a GraggBulirschStoer integrator for
Ordinary Differential Equations.

GTest 

HaltonSequenceGenerator 
Implementation of a Halton sequence.

HarmonicCurveFitter 

HarmonicCurveFitter.ParameterGuesser 
This class guesses harmonic coefficients from a sample.

HarmonicOscillator 

HarmonicOscillator.Parametric 
Parametric function where the input array contains the parameters of
the harmonic oscillator function.

HedarFukushimaTransform 
DSSA algorithm.

HermiteInterpolator 
Polynomial interpolator using both sample values and sample derivatives.

HermiteRuleFactory 

HighamHall54FieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the 5(4) Higham and Hall integrator for
Ordinary Differential Equations.

HighamHall54Integrator 
This class implements the 5(4) Higham and Hall integrator for
Ordinary Differential Equations.

Identity 
Identity function.

IllConditionedOperatorException 

IllinoisSolver 
Implements the Illinois method for rootfinding (approximating
a zero of a univariate real function).

InferenceTestUtils 
A collection of static methods to create inference test instances or to
perform inference tests.

InitialGuess 
Starting point (first guess) of the optimization procedure.

InsufficientDataException 
Exception to be thrown when there is insufficient data to perform a computation.

IntegerSequence 
Provides a sequence of integers.

IntegerSequence.Incrementor 
Utility that increments a counter until a maximum is reached, at
which point, the instance will by default throw a
MaxCountExceededException .

IntegerSequence.Incrementor.MaxCountExceededCallback 
Defines a method to be called at counter exhaustion.

IntegerSequence.Range 
Generates a sequence of integers.

InterpolatingMicrosphere 

InterpolatingMicrosphere2D 

IntervalUtils 
Factory methods to generate confidence intervals for a binomial proportion.

InvalidRepresentationException 
Exception indicating that the representation of a chromosome is not valid.

Inverse 
Inverse function.

IterationEvent 
The root class from which all events occurring while running an
IterationManager should be derived.

IterationListener 
The listener interface for receiving events occurring in an iterative
algorithm.

IterationManager 
This abstract class provides a general framework for managing iterative
algorithms.

IterativeLegendreGaussIntegrator 
This algorithm divides the integration interval into equallysized
subinterval and on each of them performs a
LegendreGauss quadrature.

IterativeLinearSolver 
This abstract class defines an iterative solver for the linear system A
· x = b.

IterativeLinearSolverEvent 

JacobianFunction 
Class representing the Jacobian of a multivariate vector function.

JacobianMatrices 
This class defines a set of secondary equations to
compute the Jacobian matrices with respect to the initial state vector and, if
any, to some parameters of the primary ODE set.

JacobianMatrices.MismatchedEquations 
Special exception for equations mismatch.

JacobiPreconditioner 
This class implements the standard Jacobi (diagonal) preconditioner.

JdkMath 
Wrapper for alternative implementations of Math functions.

JdkMath.Impl 
Available implementations of Math functions.

KalmanFilter 
Implementation of a Kalman filter to estimate the state x_{k}
of a discretetime controlled process that is governed by the linear
stochastic difference equation:

KendallsCorrelation 
Implementation of Kendall's Taub rank correlation.

KMeansPlusPlusClusterer<T extends Clusterable> 
Clustering algorithm based on David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitski kmeans++ algorithm.

KMeansPlusPlusClusterer.EmptyClusterStrategy 
Strategies to use for replacing an empty cluster.

KohonenTrainingTask 
Trainer for Kohonen's SelfOrganizing Map.

KohonenUpdateAction 

KolmogorovSmirnovTest 

KthSelector 
A Simple K^{th} selector implementation to pick up the
K^{th} ordered element from a work array containing the input
numbers.

Kurtosis 
Computes the Kurtosis of the available values.

LaguerreRuleFactory 
Factory that creates Gausstype quadrature rule using Laguerre polynomials.

LaguerreSolver 

LearningFactorFunction 
Provides the learning rate as a function of the number of calls
already performed during the learning task.

LearningFactorFunctionFactory 

LeastSquaresAdapter 

LeastSquaresBuilder 

LeastSquaresConverter 

LeastSquaresFactory 

LeastSquaresOptimizer 
An algorithm that can be applied to a nonlinear least squares problem.

LeastSquaresOptimizer.Optimum 
The optimum found by the optimizer.

LeastSquaresProblem 
The data necessary to define a nonlinear least squares problem.

LeastSquaresProblem.Evaluation 

LegendreHighPrecisionRuleFactory 
Factory that creates Gausstype quadrature rule using Legendre polynomials.

LegendreRuleFactory 
Factory that creates Gausstype quadrature rule using Legendre polynomials.

LevenbergMarquardtOptimizer 
This class solves a leastsquares problem using the LevenbergMarquardt
algorithm.

LinearConstraint 
A linear constraint for a linear optimization problem.

LinearConstraintSet 

LinearInterpolator 
Implements a linear function for interpolation of real univariate functions.

LinearObjectiveFunction 
An objective function for a linear optimization problem.

LinearOptimizer 
Base class for implementing linear optimizers.

LineSearch 
Class for finding the minimum of the objective function along a given
direction.

ListPopulation 
Population of chromosomes represented by a List .

Localizable 
Interface for localizable strings.

LocalizedFormats 
Enumeration for localized messages formats used in exceptions messages.

LocationFinder 
Helper class to find the grid coordinates of a neuron.

LocationFinder.Location 
Container holding a (row, column) pair.

LoessInterpolator 

Log 
Natural logarithm function.

Log10 
Base 10 logarithm function.

Log1p 
log(1 + p) function.

Logistic 

Logistic.Parametric 
Parametric function where the input array contains the parameters of
the logistic function .

Logit 

Logit.Parametric 
Parametric function where the input array contains the parameters of
the logit function.

LUDecomposition 
Calculates the LUPdecomposition of a square matrix.

LutherFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the Luther sixth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations.

LutherIntegrator 
This class implements the Luther sixth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations.

MainStateJacobianProvider 

ManhattanDistance 
Calculates the L_{1} (sum of abs) distance between two points.

MannWhitneyUTest 
An implementation of the MannWhitney U test (also called Wilcoxon ranksum test).

MapDataVisualization 
Interface for algorithms that compute some metrics of the projection of
data on a 2Dmap.

MapRanking 
Utility for ranking the units (neurons) of a network.

MapUtils 
Utilities for network maps.

MapVisualization 
Interface for algorithms that compute some property of a 2Dmap.

MathArithmeticException 
Base class for arithmetic exceptions.

MathArrays 
Arrays utilities.

MathArrays.Function 
Realvalued function that operate on an array or a part of it.

MathArrays.OrderDirection 
Specification of ordering direction.

MathIllegalArgumentException 
Base class for all preconditions violation exceptions.

MathIllegalNumberException 
Base class for exceptions raised by a wrong number.

MathIllegalStateException 
Base class for all exceptions that signal that the process
throwing the exception is in a state that does not comply with
the set of states that it is designed to be in.

MathInternalError 
Exception triggered when something that shouldn't happen does happen.

MathParseException 
Class to signal parse failures.

MathRuntimeException 
As of release 4.0, all exceptions thrown by the Commons Math code (except
NullArgumentException ) inherit from this class.

MathUnsupportedOperationException 
Base class for all unsupported features.

MatrixDimensionMismatchException 
Exception to be thrown when either the number of rows or the number of
columns of a matrix do not match the expected values.

MatrixUtils 
A collection of static methods that operate on or return matrices.

Max 
Maximum function.

Max 
Returns the maximum of the available values.

MaxCountExceededException 
Exception to be thrown when some counter maximum value is exceeded.

MaxEval 
Maximum number of evaluations of the function to be optimized.

MaxIter 
Maximum number of iterations performed by an (iterative) algorithm.

Mean 
Computes the arithmetic mean of a set of values.

MeasurementModel 
Defines the measurement model for the use with a KalmanFilter .

Median 
Returns the median of the available values.

MedianOf3PivotingStrategy 
Classic median of 3 strategy given begin and end indices.

MicrosphereProjectionInterpolator 
Interpolator that implements the algorithm described in
William Dudziak's
MS thesis.

MidpointFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements a second order RungeKutta integrator for
Ordinary Differential Equations.

MidpointIntegrator 
This class implements a second order RungeKutta integrator for
Ordinary Differential Equations.

MidPointIntegrator 
Implements the
Midpoint Rule for integration of real univariate functions.

MillerUpdatingRegression 

Min 
Minimum function.

Min 
Returns the minimum of the available values.

MiniBatchKMeansClusterer<T extends Clusterable> 

Minus 
Minus function.

MixtureMultivariateNormalDistribution 
Multivariate normal mixture distribution.

MixtureMultivariateRealDistribution<T extends MultivariateRealDistribution> 

ModelSpecificationException 
Exception thrown when a regression model is not correctly specified.

MullerSolver 
This class implements the
Muller's Method for root finding of real univariate functions.

MullerSolver2 
This class implements the
Muller's Method for root finding of real univariate functions.

MultiDimensionMismatchException 
Exception to be thrown when two sets of dimensions differ.

MultiDirectionalTransform 

MultiKMeansPlusPlusClusterer<T extends Clusterable> 
A wrapper around a kmeans++ clustering algorithm which performs multiple trials
and returns the best solution.

MultipleLinearRegression 
The multiple linear regression can be represented in matrixnotation.

Multiply 
Multiply the two operands.

MultiStartMultivariateOptimizer 
Multistart optimizer.

MultiStartUnivariateOptimizer 
Special implementation of the UnivariateOptimizer interface
adding multistart features to an existing optimizer.

MultistepFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class is the base class for multistep integrators for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

MultistepIntegrator 
This class is the base class for multistep integrators for Ordinary
Differential Equations.

MultistepIntegrator.NordsieckTransformer 
Deprecated.

MultivariateDifferentiableFunction 

MultivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction 

MultivariateFunction 
An interface representing a multivariate real function.

MultivariateFunctionMappingAdapter 

MultivariateFunctionPenaltyAdapter 

MultivariateInterpolator 
Interface representing a univariate real interpolating function.

MultivariateJacobianFunction 
A interface for functions that compute a vector of values and can compute their
derivatives (Jacobian).

MultivariateMatrixFunction 
An interface representing a multivariate matrix function.

MultivariateNormalDistribution 
Implementation of the multivariate normal (Gaussian) distribution.

MultivariateNormalMixtureExpectationMaximization 
ExpectationMaximization algorithm for fitting the parameters of
multivariate normal mixture model distributions.

MultivariateOptimizer 
Base class for a multivariate scalar function optimizer.

MultivariateRealDistribution 
Base interface for multivariate distributions on the reals.

MultivariateRealDistribution.Sampler 
Sampling functionality.

MultivariateSummaryStatistics 
Computes summary statistics for a stream of ntuples added using the
addValue method.

MultivariateVectorFunction 
An interface representing a multivariate vectorial function.

MutationPolicy 
Algorithm used to mutate a chromosome.

NaNStrategy 
Strategies for handling NaN values in rank transformations.

NaturalRanking 
Ranking based on the natural ordering on doubles.

NeighbourhoodSizeFunction 
Provides the network neighbourhood's size as a function of the
number of calls already performed during the learning task.

NeighbourhoodSizeFunctionFactory 

NelderMeadTransform 

Network 
Neural network, composed of Neuron instances and the links
between them.

NeuralNetException 
Exception class with constants for frequently used messages.

Neuron 
Describes a neuron element of a neural network.

NeuronSquareMesh2D 
Neural network with the topology of a twodimensional surface.

NeuronSquareMesh2D.DataVisualization 
Miscellaneous indicators of the map quality.

NeuronSquareMesh2D.HorizontalDirection 
Horizontal (along row) direction.

NeuronSquareMesh2D.VerticalDirection 
Vertical (along column) direction.

NeuronString 
Neural network with the topology of a onedimensional line.

NevilleInterpolator 

NewtonRaphsonSolver 
Implements
Newton's Method for finding zeros of real univariate differentiable
functions.

NoBracketingException 
Exception to be thrown when function values have the same sign at both
ends of an interval.

NoDataException 
Exception to be thrown when the required data is missing.

NoFeasibleSolutionException 
This class represents exceptions thrown by optimizers when no solution fulfills the constraints.

NonLinearConjugateGradientOptimizer 
Nonlinear conjugate gradient optimizer.

NonLinearConjugateGradientOptimizer.Formula 
Available choices of update formulas for the updating the parameter
that is used to compute the successive conjugate search directions.

NonLinearConjugateGradientOptimizer.IdentityPreconditioner 
Default identity preconditioner.

NonMonotonicSequenceException 
Exception to be thrown when the a sequence of values is not monotonically
increasing or decreasing.

NonNegativeConstraint 
A constraint for a linear optimization problem indicating whether all
variables must be restricted to nonnegative values.

NonPositiveDefiniteMatrixException 
Exception to be thrown when a positive definite matrix is expected.

NonPositiveDefiniteOperatorException 
Exception to be thrown when a symmetric, definite positive
RealLinearOperator is expected.

NonSelfAdjointOperatorException 

NonSquareMatrixException 
Exception to be thrown when a square matrix is expected.

NonSquareOperatorException 
Exception to be thrown when a square linear operator is expected.

NonSymmetricMatrixException 
Exception to be thrown when a symmetric matrix is expected.

NordsieckStepInterpolator 
This class implements an interpolator for integrators using Nordsieck representation.

NormalApproximationInterval 
Implements the normal approximation method for creating a binomial proportion confidence interval.

NotANumberException 
Exception to be thrown when a number is not a number.

NotFiniteNumberException 
Exception to be thrown when a number is not finite.

NotPositiveException 
Exception to be thrown when the argument is negative.

NotStrictlyPositiveException 
Exception to be thrown when the argument is not greater than 0.

NPointCrossover<T> 
Npoint crossover policy.

NullArgumentException 
All conditions checks that fail due to a null argument must throw
this exception.

NumberIsTooLargeException 
Exception to be thrown when a number is too large.

NumberIsTooSmallException 
Exception to be thrown when a number is too small.

ObjectiveFunction 
Scalar function to be optimized.

ObjectiveFunctionGradient 
Gradient of the scalar function to be optimized.

ODEIntegrator 
This interface defines the common parts shared by integrators
for first and second order differential equations.

OLSMultipleLinearRegression 
Implements ordinary least squares (OLS) to estimate the parameters of a
multiple linear regression model.

OnePointCrossover<T> 
One point crossover policy.

OneWayAnova 
Implements oneway ANOVA (analysis of variance) statistics.

OpenMapRealMatrix 
Sparse matrix implementation based on an open addressed map.

OpenMapRealVector 
This class implements the RealVector interface with a
OpenIntToDoubleHashMap backing store.

OptimizationData 
Marker interface.

OptimizationProblem<PAIR> 
Common settings for all optimization problems.

OrderedCrossover<T> 
Order 1 Crossover [OX1] builds offspring from ordered chromosomes by copying a
consecutive slice from one parent, and filling up the remaining genes from the other
parent as they appear.

OutOfRangeException 
Exception to be thrown when some argument is out of range.

Pair<K,V> 
Generic pair.

Parameterizable 
This interface enables to process any parameterizable object.

ParameterizedODE 

ParameterJacobianProvider 

ParameterValidator 
Interface for validating a set of model parameters.

ParametricUnivariateFunction 
An interface representing a real function that depends on one independent
variable plus some extra parameters.

PearsonsCorrelation 
Computes Pearson's productmoment correlation coefficients for pairs of arrays
or columns of a matrix.

PegasusSolver 
Implements the Pegasus method for rootfinding (approximating
a zero of a univariate real function).

Percentile 
Provides percentile computation.

Percentile.EstimationType 
An enum for various estimation strategies of a percentile referred in
wikipedia on quantile
with the names of enum matching those of types mentioned in
wikipedia.

PermutationChromosome<T> 
Interface indicating that the chromosome represents a permutation of objects.

PiecewiseBicubicSplineInterpolatingFunction 

PiecewiseBicubicSplineInterpolator 
Generates a piecewisebicubic interpolating function.

PivotingStrategy 
A strategy to pick a pivoting index of an array for doing partitioning.

PivotSelectionRule 
Pivot selection rule to the use for a Simplex solver.

PointValuePair 
This class holds a point and the value of an objective function at
that point.

PointVectorValuePair 
This class holds a point and the vectorial value of an objective function at
that point.

PolynomialCurveFitter 

PolynomialFunction 
Immutable representation of a real polynomial function with real coefficients.

PolynomialFunction.Parametric 
Dedicated parametric polynomial class.

PolynomialFunctionLagrangeForm 
Implements the representation of a real polynomial function in
Lagrange Form.

PolynomialFunctionNewtonForm 
Implements the representation of a real polynomial function in
Newton Form.

PolynomialSolver 
Interface for (polynomial) rootfinding algorithms.

PolynomialSplineFunction 
Represents a polynomial spline function.

PolynomialsUtils 
A collection of static methods that operate on or return polynomials.

Population 
A collection of chromosomes that facilitates generational evolution.

PopulationSize 
Population size.

Pow 
Power function.

PowellOptimizer 
Powell's algorithm.

Power 
Power function.

PreconditionedIterativeLinearSolver 
This abstract class defines preconditioned iterative solvers.

Preconditioner 
This interface represents a preconditioner for differentiable scalar
objective function optimizers.

ProcessModel 
Defines the process dynamics model for the use with a KalmanFilter .

Product 
Returns the product of the available values.

PSquarePercentile 

QRDecomposition 
Calculates the QRdecomposition of a matrix.

QuasiSigmoidDecayFunction 
Decay function whose shape is similar to a sigmoid.

RandomKey<T> 
Random Key chromosome is used for permutation representation.

RandomKeyMutation 

RandomPivotingStrategy 
A strategy of selecting random index between begin and end indices.

RankingAlgorithm 
Interface representing a rank transformation.

RealFieldElement<T> 

RealFieldUnivariateFunction<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
An interface representing a univariate real function.

RealLinearOperator 
This class defines a linear operator operating on real (double )
vector spaces.

RealMatrix 
Interface defining a realvalued matrix with basic algebraic operations.

RealMatrixChangingVisitor 
Interface defining a visitor for matrix entries.

RealMatrixFormat 
Formats a nxm matrix in components list format
"{{a_{0}_{0},a_{0}_{1}, ...,
a_{0}_{m1}},{a_{1}_{0},
a_{1}_{1}, ..., a_{1}_{m1}},{...},{
a_{n1}_{0}, a_{n1}_{1}, ...,
a_{n1}_{m1}}}".

RealMatrixPreservingVisitor 
Interface defining a visitor for matrix entries.

RealTransform 
Real transforms.

RealVector 
Class defining a realvalued vector with basic algebraic operations.

RealVectorChangingVisitor 
This interface defines a visitor for the entries of a vector.

RealVectorFormat 
Formats a vector in components list format "{v0; v1; ...; vk1}".

RealVectorPreservingVisitor 
This interface defines a visitor for the entries of a vector.

RectangularCholeskyDecomposition 
Calculates the rectangular Cholesky decomposition of a matrix.

RegressionResults 
Results of a Multiple Linear Regression model fit.

RegulaFalsiSolver 
Implements the Regula Falsi or False position method for
rootfinding (approximating a zero of a univariate real function).

Relationship 

RiddersSolver 
Implements the
Ridders' Method for root finding of real univariate functions.

Rint 
rint function.

RombergIntegrator 

RRQRDecomposition 
Calculates the rankrevealing QRdecomposition of a matrix, with column pivoting.

RungeKuttaFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the common part of all fixed step RungeKutta
integrators for Ordinary Differential Equations.

RungeKuttaIntegrator 
This class implements the common part of all fixed step RungeKutta
integrators for Ordinary Differential Equations.

SearchInterval 
Search interval and (optional) start value.

SecantSolver 
Implements the Secant method for rootfinding (approximating a
zero of a univariate real function).

SecondaryEquations 
This interface allows users to add secondary differential equations to a primary
set of differential equations.

SecondMoment 
Computes a statistic related to the Second Central Moment.

SecondOrderDifferentialEquations 
This interface represents a second order differential equations set.

SecondOrderIntegrator 
This interface represents a second order integrator for
differential equations.

SelectionPolicy 
Algorithm used to select a chromosome pair from a population.

SemiVariance 
Computes the semivariance of a set of values with respect to a given cutoff value.

SemiVariance.Direction 
The direction of the semivariance  either upside or downside.

Sigma 
Input sigma values define the initial coordinatewise extent for
sampling the solution space around the initial guess.

Sigmoid 

Sigmoid.Parametric 
Parametric function where the input array contains the parameters of
the sigmoid function .

Signum 
signum function.

SimpleBounds 
Simple optimization constraints: lower and upper bounds.

SimpleCurveFitter 

SimpleCurveFitter.ParameterGuesser 
Guesses the parameters.

SimplePointChecker<PAIR extends Pair<double[],? extends Object>> 

SimpleRegression 
Estimates an ordinary least squares regression model
with one independent variable.

SimpleUnivariateValueChecker 
Simple implementation of the
ConvergenceChecker interface
that uses only objective function values.

SimpleValueChecker 
Simple implementation of the ConvergenceChecker interface using
only objective function values.

SimpleVectorValueChecker 
Simple implementation of the ConvergenceChecker interface using
only objective function values.

Simplex 

Simplex.TransformFactory 
Generator of simplex transform.

SimplexOptimizer 
This class implements simplexbased direct search optimization.

SimplexOptimizer.Observer 
Callback interface for updating caller's code with the current
state of the optimization.

SimplexSolver 
Solves a linear problem using the "TwoPhase Simplex" method.

SimpsonIntegrator 
Implements
Simpson's Rule for integration of real univariate functions.

SimulatedAnnealing 
Simulated annealing setup.

SimulatedAnnealing.CoolingSchedule 
Specifies the cooling schedule.

Sin 
Sine function.

Sinc 
Sinc function,
defined by

SingularMatrixException 
Exception to be thrown when a nonsingular matrix is expected.

SingularOperatorException 
Exception to be thrown when trying to invert a singular operator.

SingularValueDecomposition 
Calculates the compact Singular Value Decomposition of a matrix.

Sinh 
Hyperbolic sine function.

Skewness 
Computes the skewness of the available values.

SmoothedDataHistogram 
Visualization of highdimensional data projection on a 2Dmap.

SobolSequenceGenerator 
Implementation of a Sobol sequence.

SolutionCallback 
A callback object that can be provided to a linear optimizer to keep track
of the best solution found.

SparseFieldMatrix<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
Sparse matrix implementation based on an open addressed map.

SparseFieldVector<T extends FieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the FieldVector interface with a OpenIntToFieldHashMap backing store.

SparseGradient 
First derivative computation with large number of variables.

SparseRealMatrix 
Marker interface for RealMatrix implementations that require sparse backing storage

SparseRealVector 
Marker class for RealVectors that require sparse backing storage

SpearmansCorrelation 
Spearman's rank correlation.

SplineInterpolator 
Computes a natural (also known as "free", "unclamped") cubic spline interpolation for the data set.

Sqrt 
Squareroot function.

SquareNeighbourhood 
Defines neighbourhood types.

StandardDeviation 
Computes the sample standard deviation.

StatisticalMultivariateSummary 
Reporting interface for basic multivariate statistics.

StatisticalSummary 
Reporting interface for basic univariate statistics.

StatisticalSummaryValues 
Value object representing the results of a univariate statistical summary.

StatUtils 
StatUtils provides static methods for computing statistics based on data
stored in double[] arrays.

StepFunction 

StepHandler 
This interface represents a handler that should be called after
each successful step.

StepInterpolator 
This interface represents an interpolator over the last step
during an ODE integration.

StepNormalizer 

StepNormalizerBounds 

StepNormalizerMode 

StoppingCondition 
Algorithm used to determine when to stop evolution.

StorelessCovariance 
Covariance implementation that does not require input data to be
stored in memory.

StorelessUnivariateStatistic 

Subtract 
Subtract the second operand from the first.

Sum 
Returns the sum of the available values.

SummaryStatistics 
Computes summary statistics for a stream of data values added using the
addValue method.

SumOfClusterVariances 
Computes the sum of intracluster distance variances according to the formula:

SumOfLogs 
Returns the sum of the natural logs for this collection of values.

SumOfSquares 
Returns the sum of the squares of the available values.

SymmetricGaussIntegrator 
This class's implements integrate
method assuming that the integral is symmetric about 0.

SymmLQ 

SynchronizedDescriptiveStatistics 

SynchronizedMultivariateSummaryStatistics 

SynchronizedSummaryStatistics 
Implementation of
SummaryStatistics that
is safe to use in a multithreaded environment.

Tan 
Tangent function.

Tanh 
Hyperbolic tangent function.

ThreeEighthesFieldIntegrator<T extends RealFieldElement<T>> 
This class implements the 3/8 fourth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations.

ThreeEighthesIntegrator 
This class implements the 3/8 fourth order RungeKutta
integrator for Ordinary Differential Equations.

TiesStrategy 
Strategies for handling tied values in rank transformations.

TooManyEvaluationsException 
Exception to be thrown when the maximal number of evaluations is exceeded.

TooManyIterationsException 
Exception to be thrown when the maximal number of iterations is exceeded.

TournamentSelection 
Tournament selection scheme.

TrapezoidIntegrator 
Implements the
Trapezoid Rule for integration of real univariate functions.

TricubicInterpolatingFunction 

TricubicInterpolator 
Generates a tricubic interpolating function.

TrivariateFunction 
An interface representing a trivariate real function.

TrivariateGridInterpolator 
Interface representing a trivariate real interpolating function where the
sample points must be specified on a regular grid.

TTest 
An implementation for Student's ttests.

Ulp 
ulp function.

UnboundedSolutionException 
This class represents exceptions thrown by optimizers when a solution escapes to infinity.

UnifiedDistanceMatrix 
UMatrix
visualization of highdimensional data projection.

UniformCrossover<T> 
Perform Uniform Crossover [UX] on the specified chromosomes.

UnivariateDifferentiableFunction 
Interface for univariate functions derivatives.

UnivariateDifferentiableMatrixFunction 

UnivariateDifferentiableSolver 
Interface for (univariate real) rootfinding algorithms.

UnivariateDifferentiableVectorFunction 

UnivariateFunction 
An interface representing a univariate real function.

UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator 
Interface defining the function differentiation operation.

UnivariateIntegrator 
Interface for univariate real integration algorithms.

UnivariateInterpolator 
Interface representing a univariate real interpolating function.

UnivariateMatrixFunction 
An interface representing a univariate matrix function.

UnivariateMatrixFunctionDifferentiator 
Interface defining the function differentiation operation.

UnivariateObjectiveFunction 
Scalar function to be optimized.

UnivariateOptimizer 
Base class for a univariate scalar function optimizer.

UnivariatePeriodicInterpolator 

UnivariatePointValuePair 
This class holds a point and the value of an objective function at this
point.

UnivariateSolver 
Interface for (univariate real) rootfinding algorithms.

UnivariateSolverUtils 

UnivariateStatistic 
Base interface implemented by all statistics.

UnivariateVectorFunction 
An interface representing a univariate vectorial function.

UnivariateVectorFunctionDifferentiator 
Interface defining the function differentiation operation.

UnknownParameterException 
Exception to be thrown when a parameter is unknown.

UpdateAction 
Describes how to update the network in response to a training
sample.

UpdatingMultipleLinearRegression 
An interface for regression models allowing for dynamic updating of the data.

ValueAndJacobianFunction 
A interface for functions that compute a vector of values and can compute their
derivatives (Jacobian).

Variance 
Computes the variance of the available values.

VectorialCovariance 
Returns the covariance matrix of the available vectors.

VectorialMean 
Returns the arithmetic mean of the available vectors.

WeightedEvaluation 
Weighted evaluation for statistics.

WeightedObservedPoint 
This class is a simple container for weighted observed point in
curve fitting .

WeightedObservedPoints 
Simple container for weighted observed points used
in curve fitting algorithms.

WilcoxonSignedRankTest 
An implementation of the Wilcoxon signedrank test.

WilsonScoreInterval 

ZeroException 
Exception to be thrown when zero is provided where it is not allowed.
